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| Last Updated:: 02/02/2017

Important Plants with Chemical Constituents

Important Plants with Chemical Constituents

 

 

Trianthema protulacastrum L., Sp. Pl. 223. 1753; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 550. 1919; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 147. 1979. T. monogyna L., Mant. Pl. 1: 69. 1767; Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India 2: 660. 1879; Prain, Bengal Pl. 1: 533. 1903. (AIZOACEAE)

 

Local name :

"Sepunday, Sabuni".

Description :  Diffused, prostrate, sub-succulent annual herbs up to 60 cm long. Stems subterete or slightly angular, thickened and flattened on nodes, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Leaves decussate, unequal 1.5-5 x 1-3 cm, subfleshy, broadly obovate or suborbicular, cuneate at base, rounded or retuse at apex; petiole 3-15 mm long, with sheathing membranous bases connate pairwise below into a funnel shaped pouch. Flowers sessile axillary solitary, lower part hidden in pouch. Perianth 3-4 mm long, tabe scarious; lobes ovate, acute, white or pinkish. Stamens 10-24. Capsule turbinate almost concealed within the pouch of the dilated petiole base, with a truncated, 2 lobed apex.

Fl. & Fr. :

May-Oct.

Chromosome Number : 26 Bir, S.S. & Sidhu, M. 1974, 1980 ;

28 Sarker, A.K. et al. 1973.

Ecology :

Common in cultivated fields, waste low-lying areas, along railway embankments, roadsides etc. Two types of plants occur, pinkish flowered with pinkish-tinge in stem & leaf margin and white flowered without pinkish tinged.

Distribution :

Very common, throughout.

Part used :

Leaves, stems, roots.

Properties :

Root are laxative, sweet, irritant, abortifacient, emmenagogue, antiphlogistic, diuretic.

Leaves are diuretic, vermifuge, mild laxative

Uses : Leaves are used as vegetable. Leaf-extract is used in asthma, strangury, amenorrhoea, dropsy, oedema, ascites and also as antidote to alcohol-poisoning, in rheumatism and as vermifuge. Roots are used as cathartic, irritant, and abortifacient also used in asthma, amenorrhoea and obstruction of liver, calculi etc.

Chemical Constituents : Plant contains alkaloid trianthemine (C32H46O6N2; m.p. 127°). Roots contain a glucoside similar in properties to saponin. Ecdysterone isolated, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid and β-cyanin isolated.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

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Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wangerin, in Engl. Pflanzenr. IV. 220b, Heft 41: 9. 1910; Mukherjee in Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10: 330. 1969; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 259. 1979. Grewia salvifolia L.f., Suppl. Pl. 409. 1781. Alangium lamarckii Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 133. 1859; Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 741. 1879; Prain, Bengal Pl. 1: 545. 1903. (ALANGIACEAE)

Local name :

"Ankar".

Description :  Deciduous shrub or tree, to 8 m high, some times spinous; branchlets pubescent. Leaves 7-15 x 2-5 cm, oblong, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, acute or subobtuse at apex, rounded or sometimes oblique at base, entire, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, young pubescent, mature glabrous above, minutely pubescent beneath especially on veins; petiole 6-9 mm long, pubescent. Flowers in sessile dense axillary fascicles or from axils of fallen leaves; bracts ovate, deciduous, to 1.5 mm long; pedicels 3-5 mm long, woolly; flower bud terete velvety 1.5-2.5 cm long. Calyx-tube 0.2-0.25 cm long, minutely toothed, woolly; teeth triangular. Petals usually 6-8 (5-10), 1.2-2.5 cm long, cream coloured, oblong, obtuse at apex, swollen at base, woolly outside. Stamens many (18-30). Disk circular. Ovary 2 mm; style 1-2 cm long, glabrous, cylindric; Stigma large, sub globose. Drupe 12-16 x 8-10 mm subglobose black when ripe.

Fl. :

Feb.-April.

Fr. :

April-June.

Ecology :

Found along road side, shrubberies, sides of nalas etc.

Distribution :

Less common throughout the district.

Part used :

Root, root-bark, leaves, fruits, seed, seed-oil.

Properties :

Roots are acrid, astringent, emollient, anthelmintic, thermogenic, emetic, diuretic, purgative, alterative, antipyretic, diaphoretic.

Fruits are sweet, cooling, purgative, antiphlegmatic, laxative, refrigerant.

Uses :  Bark and roots are used in jaundice. Root bark is purgative, anthelmintic, useful in fever and skin diseases. Roots are useful for external application in acute case of rheumatism, leprosy, inflammation and for external and internal application in case of bites of rabid dogs Root bark (infusion or powder) used as alternative, anthelmintic (a good substitute for ipecac), antipyretic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, laxative, purgative, antidotal to poisonous bites and beneficial in leprosy, other skin diseases and syphilis, febrifuge, derived oil applied externally in acute rheumatism. Fruits are useful in treating burning sensation and haemorrhages, emaciation, eye troubles, strangury. Seeds are used as coolant, tonic, applied to boil, haemorrhage. Leaves paste as poultice in rheumatic pains. Seed oil is employed in piles.

Chemical Constituents : Plant is found to be another source of ipecac alkaloids viz., cephaeline, emetine, psychotrine. Root bark contains alangine A, alangicine marckine, marckidine, tubulosine, isotubulosine, cephaeline, emetine, psychotrine, demethylpsychotrine, lamarckinine, N-methylcephaeline, deoxytubulosine etc. Stem bark contains alancine, emetine, cephaeline, psychotrine, lamarchkinine, N-methylcephaeline, deoxytubulosine demethylcephaline, tubulosine, demethylpsychotrine etc. Leaves contain ankorine, campesterol, episterol, deoxytubulosine, alangimarckine, choline chloride, stigmast-5,22,25-trien-3β-ol, a monoterpenoid lactum-alangiside, two unidentified triterpenoids, alangidiol, isoalangidiol, N-benzoyl-L-Phenyl-alaniol. Branches found to contain venoterpine, ankorine, cephaeline, psychotrine. Seeds contain alangimarine, alamarine, alangimaridine, venoterpine, salsoline, isocephaeline, deoxytubulosine, 10-demethylprotoemetinol, 9-demethyl-protoemetinol, bharatamine, alangamide, alamaridine, betulinic acid, betulin aldehyde, betulin, lupeol, β-sitosterol.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

      

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Achyranthus aspera L., Sp. Pl. 204. 1753; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 730. 1885; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 875. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 143. 1979. (AMARANTHACEAE)

Local name :

"Apang".

Description :  Erect annual or biennial coarse herbs 20-100 cm tall, simple or obliquely ascending branches from the base; stem striate. Leaves decussate, 2-10 x 1.5-6 cm, broadly elliptic-obovate, obovate or obovate-suborbicular, truncated or narrowed at base, rounded to subacute at apex; petiole 0.5-1.5 cm long. Spikes terminal, simple 10-70 cm long; rachis pubescent; bracts 2.5-3.5 mm long, broadly ovate, acuminate, membranous, glabrous, spreading after anthesis; bracteoles 2-3 mm long, ovate, concave, glabrous, hard in fruit. Tepals 5 subequal, ovate-lanceolate, white. Stamens 5; staminodes fimbriate. Style persistent. Utricle 2.5-3 mm long, oblong, rounded at base; flat at apex, enclosed in the hard perianth.

Fl. & Fr. :

Oct.-Feb.

Chromosome Number : 14 Malik, N.A. & Ahmad, A.J. 1963; 21 , 42 Pal, M.; 36 Sinha, S.S. N. et al. 1972; 42 Ahuja, M.R. 1955; 42 , 84 Pal M. 1964; 84 Ven-Loon, J.C. 1974.

Ecology :

Common in dry shady or open, moist places. Plants of rainy season and moist shady areas are much luxuriant and less hairy compared to plants of open dry areas and summer plants.

Distribution :

Common, throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plant, seeds.

Properties :

Plant is acrid, bitter, thermogenic, expectorant, carminative, digestive, stomachic, laxative, anodyne, depurative, anthelmintic, diuretic, lithontriptic, sudorific, demulcent, haematinic, anti inflammatory.

Uses :  Plant is useful in cough, asthma, bronchitis, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, painful inflammation, dropsy, opthalmopathy, vomiting, leprosy, skin diseases, pruritus, helminthiasis, strangury, renal and vesical calculi, cardiac disorders, anaemia and general debility. Seeds used as emetic and in treatment of hydrophobia. Unripe fruits used in treatment of respiratory diseases.

Chemical Constituents : Root contains triterpenoid saponins, betaine, achyranthine, hentriacontane, ecdysterone (polypodineA), ecdysone. Fruit contains two oleanolic acid base saponins. Two new saponins C & D isolated from fruits and their structures elucidated. Seed oil contains linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, behenic, arachidic, myristic, and lauric acids.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

      

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Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. in Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. Par. 2: 131. 1808; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 728. 1885; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 874. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 138. 1979. (AMARANTHACEAE)

Local name :

"Chaya".

Description :  Erect, suberect or decumbent-ascending perennial or annual herbs, often with a stout woody rootsotck. Stem terete, striate, pubescent or woolly. Leaves alternate 0.8-2.8 x 0.6-1.8 cm, pubescent above, white woolly beneath, suborbicular-obovate or ovate-elliptic or spathulate, cuneate or contracted at base, obtuse or rounded at apex. Petioles 3-6 mm long. Spikes axillary, usually 2-4 together, 0.5-1.2 cm long, sessile, cylindric, dull white. Flowers bisexual; bracts and bracteoles up to 1 mm long, concave, ovate, apiculate. Tepals 5, 0.13-0.15 cm long, oblong, obtuse, often apiculate, silky hairy on the back. Utricle ± 1 cm across, ovoid, acute. Seeds reniform, smooth, shining black.

Fl. & Fr. :

April-July.

Chromosome Number : 16 Gajapathy, C. 1961; Pal, M. 1964; Sharma, A.K. & Banik, M. 1965.

Ecology :

Found in waste places, along road-sides and thickets; prefer dry soil.

Distribution :

Less common throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plant, root.

Properties :

The plant is astringent, bitter, cooling, expectorant, emollient, vermifuge, suppurative, diuretic, lithontriptic.

Uses :  Plant useful to treat boils, worms, asthma, cough, strangury, indigestion, wounds, diabetes. A decoction of the plant is an efficacious diuretic and is useful in catarrh of bladder.
The roots are diuretic, demulcent and credited with tonic properties. The roots are used to cure headache. The flowers are used to cure headache and also for the removal of kidney stones and in gonorrhoea.

Chemical Constituents : Plant reported to contain tannin, β-sitosteryl palmitate, α-amyrin and β-sitosterol, campesterol, chrysin. Four flavonoid glycosides (I, II, III, IV) isolated and characterized.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

    

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Alternanthera pungens Kunth in H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. 2: 206. 1817; Raizada in Indian For. 76: 495. 1950; Melville in Kew Bull. 13: 174. 1958; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 141. 1979. (AMARANTHACEAE)

Local name :

"Isharmul".

Description : Prostrate, mat forming, perennial herbs; branches 30-60 cm long, terete, young portion densely appressed hairy. Leaves 1-4.5 x 0.6-2.5 cm, unequal paired, broadly elliptic-obovate, narrowed at base, obtuse or rounded, apiculate at aepx. Heads 1-3 in leaf axils, 8-14 mm long; bracts ovate-lanceolate, ± 4 mm long, membranous, spine-tipped. Tepals 5, unequal, 3.5-4.5 mm long, 2 abaxials hardening after anthesis, convex spine tipped; adaxial some what flat, apex finely denticulate, tip mucronate, base with tuft of hairs. Stamens 5; staminodes much shorter than the filaments. Utricle ± 1.5 mm long broadly ovate. Seed ovoid much compressed, brown, shining.

Fl. & Fr. :

Oct.-May.

Chromosome Number : 64 Datta, N. & Chatterjee, U. 1969.

Ecology :

Found in dry waste palces, paddy fields, ditches in dry open soil plants are much hairy.

Distribution :

Less common, infrequent, throughout the district.

Uses : Plant is used as diuretic. Decoction of leaves and twigs is used in gonorrhoea.

Chemical Constituents : α and β-spinasterols isolated from the plant. Determination of azulene, α-borneol, bornylacetate, camphene, camphore, 1,8-cineol, α-cucumene, p-cymene, elemol acetate, eudesmol, genaniol, limonene, linalool, myrcene, β-ocimene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpineol, α-terpinolene and α-thujone in flower oil by GC.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

        

 

 

Alternanthera sessilis (L.) DC., Cat. Hort. Monspel. 77. 1813; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 713. 1885; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 875. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 140. 1979. Gomphrena sessilis L., Sp., Pl. 225. 1753. (AMARANTHACEAE)

Local name :

"Sincheshak".

Description :  Annual or perennial, prostrate or decumbent-ascending much branched herb, often rooting at the lower nodes. Stems 4-angular, green or often purple-tinged, young portion with two opposite longitudinal lines of white hairs. Leaves up to 6.5 x 2 cm, varying from linear, linear-lanceolate, oblong, obovate or broadly elliptic, cuneate to attenuate at base, subacute or rounded at apex; petiole 1-5 mm long. Flowers ±1.5 mm across, borne in sessile or sometime shortly peduncled, globose heads. 1-4 together in axils, becoming cylindrical with age; bracts ± 0.8 mm long; bracteoles 1-1.2 mm long. Tepals 1.8-2 mm long, ovate-elliptic, subacuminate. Stamens 3 alternating with staminodes. Fruit 1.3-2 x 1.5-2.2 mm, obreniform, strongly compressed, dark brown. Seeds discoid, shining, brown.

Fl. & Fr. :

Almost throughout the year.

Chromosome Number :  34 Grant, W.F. 1964; Pal, M. 1964; 34, 96 Sharma, A.K. & Banik, M. 1965; 36 Mitra, K. & Datta, N. 1967; 60 Mittra, R. 1971.

Ecology :

Very common along the margin of water bodies, drainage canal, road side waste places highly variable according to habitat.

Distribution :

Very common throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plant.

Properties :

The plant is sweet, astringent, slighty bitter, acrid, cooling, digestive, constipating, depurative, cholagogue, galactagogue and febrifuge.

Uses :  Plant is useful in vitiated condition of cough, burning sensation, diarrhoea, leprosy, skin disease dyspepsia, haemorrhoids, agalactia, splenomegaly and fever.

Chemical Constituents : The plant contain α and β-spinasterols; lupeol isolated from roots. Isolation of 24-methylenecycloartanol, cycloeucalenol, campesterol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, 5α-stigmast-7-enol and their respective palmitates, nonacosane, 16-hentriacontane, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and handianol isolated. A saponin having oleanolic acid as aglycone and glucose and rhamnose as sugars isolated from leaves.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

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Amaranthus spinosus L., Sp. Pl. 991. 1753; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 718. 1885; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 869. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 136. 1979. (AMARANTHACEAE)

Local name :

"Kanta Notey".

Description : Erect, much-branched glabrous herbs, up to 60 cm high; armed with stright up to 1.5 cm long axillary spines. Stems terete, green or sometime suffused with purple. Leaves long-petioled, 1.5-8.5 x 0.6-4 cm, ovate-lanceolate to rhomboid-elliptic, apex acute or obtuse, base cuneate; Flowers in dense axillary clusters; lower clusters, entirely female; higher ones collected into spikes or penicles representing female in lower part and wholly male in upper part. Male flowers: Tepals 5, 2.5-3 mm long, ovate or lanceolate; stamens 5. Female flowers: Tepals 5, 1.5-2 mm long, oblong, apiculate. Styles 2-3, divaricate. Utricle ovoid-oblong, circumscissile. Seeds 0.8-0.9 in diam, biconvex, shining black.

Fl. & Fr. :

Almost throughout the year.

Chromosome Number : 32 Subramanyum, K. & Kamble, N.P.; 34 Takagi, F. 1933; Murray, M.J. 1940a.

Ecology :

Common in waste places, roadsides and fields.

Distribution :

Common throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plant.

Properties :

The plant is sweet, cooling, alexiteric, laxative, diuratic, stomachic, antipyretic, febrifuge, sudorific, galactagogue, haematinic, appetiser & tonic. Roots are thermogenic, haemostatic.

Uses :  The plant is useful in hyperdipsia, burning sensation, hallucination, lepsory, eczema, bronchitis, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, haemorrhoids, abscesses, boils, burns, strangury, nausea, flatulence, colic, anorexia, fever, intermittent fevers, agalactia, anaemia. Roots are useful in menorrhagia, haemoptysis, haematemesis and leucorrhoea.

Chemical Constituents : Whole plant contais higher alkanes and their methyl derivatives, higher aliphatic alcohols, acids and esters, amino acids, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, cholesterol, α-spinasterol, glycosides of α-spinasterol, oleanoic acid, quercetin, rutin, α-spinasterol octacosanoate. A new saponin-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-4)-β-D-glucurono-pyramosyl(1-3)-oleanolic acid-(I) isolated from roots.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

       

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Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. in J. Arnold Arb. 19: 353. 1938; Santapau in Rec. Bot. Surv. India ed. 3. 16: 51. 1967; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 221. 1979. Dialium coromandelicum Houtt., Nat. Hist. II. 2: 39. t. 5. f. 2. 1774. Odina wodier Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 293. 1832; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 29. 1876; Prain, Bengal Pl. 1: 354. 1903. (ANACARDIACEAE)

Local name :

"Jiol".

Description : Small, deciduous tree to 10 m high; branches more or less stellate tomentose. Leave alternate, 15-40 cm long, imparipinnate; leaflets 5-9, 6-14 x 3.5-5 cm, elliptic-oblong, ovate-oblong, acuminate at apex, obliquely rounded at base, entire, glabrous, shining; petiolule 1-3 mm long, of odd one much longer. Flowers subsessile, borne in simple or compound racemes in axils of leaf-scars; female racemes simple; male one compound, pedicels very-short, pubescent; bracts ovate, acute, ciliate. Calyx-lobes 4, 1 mm long, ovate-orbicular, ciliate. Petals 4, 3-4 mm long, ovate-oblong, acute, yellowish-green, spreading, reflexed in female flowers. Stamens 8, 2-2.5 mm long. Disk annular, c 1 mm across. Ovary in female flowers ovoid-oblong, 4-celled, usually 1 fertile, surrounded by sterile stamens. Drupe oblong, red or pinkish when ripe.

Fl. & Fr. :

Feb.-May.

Chromosome Number : 30 Mehra, P.N. & Khosla, P.K. 1969; Khosla, P.K. et al. 1973.

Ecology :

Infrequently found in village surroundings, especially at edge of ewater bodies, along road side, shrubberies etc.

Distribution :

Less common, throughout the district.

Part used :

Leaves, bark, gum.

Properties :

Bark and leavesare acrid, astringent, womb purifier, sweet, thermogenic, stomachic, anodyne, antiphlogistic, haemostatic.

Uses : Leaves decoction of leaves is useful in elephantiasis, pruritus, stomatitis, gout, swellings. Paste of leaves is applied on swelling, wounds, bruises cuts, body ache, sprains. Paste with black-pepper applied in rheumatism. Bark decoction of bark is given in diarrhoea, dysentery, atonic dyspepsia, sprains, stomatitis, gout; used as a gargle for toothache and as a lotion in skin eruptions and ulcers; paste applied externally to leprous ulcers. Gum internally given in asthma and as galactogogue.

Chemical Constituents : Leaves contain leucocyanidin, leucodelphinidin, rutin, ellagic acid, quercetin and its 3-arabinoside, β-sitosterol. Stem-bark contains leucocyanidin, β-sitosterol, rutin, di-epicatechin, phlobatannins, physcion, physcion anthranol B, a neutral polysaccharide compound of D-galactose and L-arabinose (4:1) polysaccharide containing galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acids hydroxy anthraquinoes. Flowers contain ellagic acid, quercetin, 3-arabinoside, isoquercitrin, morin. Fruits contain alkaloids, terpenes, etc. Gum is a neutral polysaccharide (I) composed of galactose and arabinose in 4:1 ratio.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

 

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Centella asiatica (L.) Urban in Mart., Fl. Bras. 11(1): 287, t. 78. f. 1. 1879; Gamble, Fl. Madras 1: 556. 1919; Buwalda in Blumea 2: 134. 1946 & in Steenis, Fl. Males. Ser. 1, 4: 117. 1949; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 268. 1979. Hydrocotyle asiatica L., Sp. Pl. 234. 1753; Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 669. 1879; Prain, Bengal Pl. 1: 535. 1903. (APIACEAE)

Local name :

"Thankuni".

Description : Stoloniferous, creeping herbs with perennial erect root stock. Leaves borne in rosettes, chartaceous, long-petioled, 1.5-4 cm in diam, orbicular-reniform, crenate or crenate-dentate, glabrous; petiole 3-16 cm long, sheathing at base, sometime puberulous. Umbels solitary or 2-5 together in axils of bracts; bracts 3-3.5 mm long. Flowers usually 3 in each umbel, middle one sessile, lateral ones short-pedicellate; involucres 2, 3-3.5 mm long. Calyx-teeth obsolete. Petals minute, ovate-rounded, 1.2-1.5 mm long, pink. Anther red. Mericarps to 3 x 3.5 mm, didymous, primary and secondary ridges district, subpilose.

Fl. & Fr. :

April-July.

Chromosome Number : 18 Datta, P.C. & Maiti, R.K. 1968; 22 Joshi, S. & Raghuvanshi, S.S. 1970; 22+1-2B Raghuvanshi, S.S. & Joshi, S. 1968; 33 Mitsukuri, Y.& Kurahori, Y. 1959.

Ecology :

Commonly found in shady as well as open waste-lands, grassy fields, gardens, bank of ponds etc.

Distribution :

Common throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plants, leaves.

Properties :

Plant is bitter, acrid, sweet, cooling, anti dysenteric soporific, cardiotonic, nervine tonic, stomachic, carminative, antileprotic, diuretic and febrifuge.

Uses : Plant is useful in insomnia, cardiac debility, epilepsy hoarseness, asthma, bronchitis, hiccough; amentia, abdominal disorders, leprosy, strangury, fever to increase memory power. The cold poultice of the fresh herb is used as an external application in rheumatism, elephantiasis and hydrocele. Internally also used in leucorrhoea, kidney troubles, urethritis dropsy. Decoction of young shoots is given in haemorrhoids. In paste form applied on boils, tumours. Plant also consider as aphrodisiac and used in venereal diseases. Leaves are useful in abdominal disorders. Leaf juice is rubbed on the fore head to treat severe head ache, used in eczema. It is also used as diuretic. Leaf extract is used in the preparation of medicated oil for bone fracture.

Chemical Constituents : Plant contains 3-glucosylquercetin, 3-glucosyl-and 7-glucosyl-Kaemfrol, polyacetylenes I-V and nine other acetylenes; amino acids, asiatic, centic, centellic, centoic, pectic, madasiatic acids, carotene, centellose (oligosaccharide), hydrocotylin (alkaloid), lipid, protein, pectin, saponins, vallerine, asiaticoside (2,3,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic-acid-o-6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranoyl-(1→4)-o-β-D-glucopyrono-syl-(1→6)-o-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl ester), aslaticosides A [o-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-o-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-o-β-D-glucopyranose ester of 2α, 3β, 6β, 23α-tetra hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid; asiaticoside B ([o-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-o-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6)]-o-β-D-glucopyranose ester of 2α, 3β, 6β, 23α- tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, indocentelloside, brahmoside, brahminoside, isothankuniside, medecassoside, thankcuriside, brahmic (= made cassic or made gascaric acid, 2α, 3β, 6β, 23- tetrahydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid), and thankunic acids; β-caryophyllene, trans-β-farnesene, germacrene D, mesoinositol, polyphenols, α-terpinene, thymol methyl ether, betulic acid, β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, tannins, vitamins B1, B2 and C.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

    

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Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 76. 1811(1810); Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 642. 1882; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 672. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 281. 1979. Echites scholaris L., Mant. Pl. 1: 53. 1767. (APOCYNACEAE)

Local name :

"Chatim".

Description : Tree, 10-18 m high, branches whorled. Leaves in whorls of 3-8, 8-18 x 3-6 cm, subcoriaceous, oblanceolate to oblong-elliptic, obtusely acute at apex, cuneate at base, glabrous; petiole 0.5-1.2 cm long. Flowers in umbellately branched dense cymose panicle, greenish white; peduncle 2-6 cm long, stout; pedicels short. Calyx cupular, 2.5-3 mm long, pubescent, lobes 5, oblong, obtuse, ciliate. Corolla tube 6-8 mm long, villous at mouth; lobes ± 5 mm long, oblong-obovate, overlapping to left. Follicles cylindric, pendulous, divaricate, 20-50 cm long. Seeds 5-6 mm long, linear-oblong, flattened, ends rounded with tuft of coma longer than seed.

Fl. :

Nov.-Feb.

Fr. :

Feb.-July.

Chromosome Number : 40 Mehra, P.N. & Bawa, K.S. 1969; 44 Chauhan, A.K.S. & Raghuvanshi, S.S. 1977.

Ecology :

Both planted and self-sown plants found along road side, railway line and village surroundings.

Distribution :

Less common, throughout the district.

Part used :

Bark, leaves, latex, wood.

Properties :

Barkis bitter, astringent, acrid, digestive, alterative, laxative, anthelmintic, febrifuge, depurative, antidysenteric, galactagogue, stomachic, cardiotonic, tonic, antimalarial, sedative. Latex bitter, antiulcer.

Uses : Leaves deeoction used in beriberi; in congestion of liver, dropsy; poultice applied to ulcers. Bark decoction or powdered bark employed in malaria, diarrhoea, fevers, dysentery, skin diseases, pruritus, asthma, bronchitis, worms helminthiasis, toxiemia, cures gastro-intestinal troubles. Latex applied in rheumatic pains, sores, toothache, tumours, ulcers; mixed with oil to use as ear-drop. Wood paste applied in rheumatism and wounds.

Chemical Constituents : Stem barkcontains α-amyrine acetate, lupeol acetate, echitamine, picrinine, venoterpine glucoside, akuammidine, strictamine, tetrahydroalstonine, Δ3-carene, citral, citranellol, geraniol, linalool, α-pinene, terpinolene, angustilobine B, losbanine, alschomine, isoalschomine, alstonamine, (20S)-19, 20-dihydrocondylocarpine, 19-hydroxytubotaiwine, (+)-lochneridine, (-) scholarine, picralinal, rhazimanine, scholaricine, Nb-methyl-scholaricine, 19-20-E-vallesamine, 19,20-Z-vallesamine, betulin, ditamine, Nb-demethylechitamine, echitenine, 17-o-acetyl-echitamine, 6,7-angustilobine B; akuammigine, N-demethyl-6-7-Seco alstonamine, 6,7-Seco-alstonamine and its N-demethyl derivative etc. Leaves contain picrinine, picralinal, strictamine, tetrahydroalstonine, pscudoakuammigine, betulin, ursolic acid, β-sitosterol, (-) scholarine, (+) lochneridine, 20(S)-19, 20-dihydrocondylocarpine, 19,20-vallesamines, alstonamine, rhazimanine, alschomine alongwith its C-5 isomer, isoalschomine, neraline. Roots contain akuammigine, tubotaiwine, akuammicine, akuammicine-Nb-oxide, hydroxy-19,20-dihydroakuammicine, α-amyrine, lupeolacetate, stigmasterol, α-sitosterol, scholaricine, isookanin-7-o-rhamnoside (8,3´,4´-trihydroxyflavanone-7-o-α-L-rhamnopyrano-side).

Chemical structures of some compounds:

    

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Holarrhena pubescens (Buch.-Ham.) Wall. ex G. Don, Gen. Syst. 4: 78. 1838; Rani & Matthew in Matthew, Fl. Tamil Nadu Carnatic Pl. 2: 910. 1983, p.p.; Panigrahi in Taxon 36: 464-467. 1987. Echites pubescens Buch.-Ham. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 13: 524. 1822. Holarrhena antidysenterica sensu Wall., num. List. No. 1672. 1829, non (L.) Wall.; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 644. 1882; Prain, Bengal Pl. 1: 674. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 282. 1979. (APOCYNACEAE)

Local name :

"Kurchi".

Description :  Deciduous large shrub to small tree, 5-12 m high. Bark pale. Leaves 10-14 x 4-9 cm, subsessile, elliptic-oblong to ovate-oblong, apex acute to abruptly acuminate, margin entire, rounded to obtuse or shortly cuneate, equal or unequal at base, cymes 5-12 cm in diam. Bracts small, ciliate; pedicels slender, to 1.2 cm long. Flowers 2-3 cm in diam; calyx segments 5, unequal, lanceolate, acuminate, hirsute without, 2-2.3 mm long, with small glands within; corolla white, 2.5-3 cm across; tube 8-10 mm long, slender, slightly inflated near base; lobes 1-1.4 cm long, oblong, rounded or obtuse at apex, overlapping to left in bud. Follicles slender, terete, 20-40 x ± 1 cm dotted with white spots. Seeds 0.8-1.2 cm long, linear-oblong, compressed; coma 2.5-3.5 cm long, brown.

Fl. :

Apr.-July;

Fr. :

Oct.-Feb.

Chromosome Number : 22 Raghavan, R.S. 1959; Chauhan, A.K. S. & Raghuvanshi, S.S. 1977; De, M. 1978.

Ecology :

Rarely found in village surrounding and shrubberies.

Distribution :

Rare, only in few areas of the district.

Part used :

Plant, Bark, leaves, seeds.

Properties :

Bark and Seeds are bitter, constipating, astringent, acrid, refrigerant, anthelmintic, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, carminative, digestive, expectorant, febrifuge antidysenteric, tonic.

Uses :  Plant used in anaemia, colic pain, diarrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia, obstetric conditions, spermatorrhoea, splenomegaly. Bark and seedsare useful in amoebic dysentery, diabetes, diarrhoea, asthma, bronchopneumonia, hepatopathy, gastropathy, hepatosplenomegaly, internal haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, rheumatism, malaria, vomiting, verminosis, uropathy, skin diseases, bleeding piles colitis, bark paste applied in pruritus, rheumatism ulcers, uterine discharge. Leaves are used in chronic bronchitis, applied to boils and ulcers.

Chemical Constituents : Stem barkcontains conessine, conimine, isoconessimine, conessidine, conessimine, conkurchine, holadiene, holarrhonine, holarrhimine, holafebrine, N3-methyl-holarrhimine, holacine, holacimine, regholarrhenines A, B & C, conamine, conarrhimine, conkurchinine, holarrhin, holarrhessimine, kurchine, kurchicine, lettocine, norconessine, holarrhidine, holarrifine, kurchinidine, kurchinine, kurcholessine, holarrhetin, N,N,N´,N´-tetra methylholarrhimine, etc. Leaves contain kurchiphyllamine, kurchiphylline, holantosines A & B, N-acetylholantosine C, N-acetylholantosine D, N-acetylholarosine A, N-acetyl-holantosamine and its α and β-methyl derivatives, holarosineB, holantosines E & F, etc. Seeds containholarricine, triacanthin, conomine, conarrhimine, irehline, lettocine, kurcine, linoceric, linolenic, linolei, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, 9-D-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, etc. Root bark contains holacetin characterized as (20S)-acetamido-5-pregnan-3β-ol.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

  

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Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br. in Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 62. 1811 (reprint 1810) and in Ait. f., Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 2: 69. 1811; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 669. 1882; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 680. 1903. Apocynum frutescens L., Sp. Pl. 213. 1753. (APOCYNACEAE)

Local name :

"Shyamalata".

Description :  Climbing shrub with rusty tomentose branches. Leaves opposite, variable, 3-7.5 x 1.5-3 cm, subcoriaceous, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, rounded or subcuneate at base, acute to shortly acuminate at apex, entire, glabrous above, glabrous to sparsely pubescent beneath; petiole 3-6 mm long. Flowers numerous, in terminal and axillary rusty-pubescent trichotomous pedunculate cymes. Pedicels 3-4 mm long. Calyx divided ½ way down; lobes ovate, acute, eglandular, subequal, tomentose, 1.2-1.5 mm long. Corolla creamish, 5-6 mm across; tube 2-3 mm long, middle much inflated, mouth pubescent; lobes falcate, acuminate, twice as long as the tube. Anthers sagittate, conniving in a cone around and adhering to stigma. Disk lobes much longer than hairy ovary. Follicles 10-15 cm long rusty pubescent when young, curved, very slender, cylindric. Seeds 1-1.2 cm long, linear, black. Coma scanty, white, as long as seeds.

Fl. & Fr. :

Sept.-April.

Chromosome Number : 20 Gajapathy. C. 1962.

Ecology :

Found in hedges and serub Jungles.

Distribution :

Rare, found only in few areas of the district.

Part used :

Whole plants, leaves, stem and root.

Uses :  Whole plant used as tribal medicine in atropy, bleeding gums, convulsions, cough, delirium, dysentery, glossitis, haematuria, measles; night blindness, relieves pain due to insect bites, splenomegaly and tuberculosis. Leaves and stem: decoction in fever and skin eruptions. Root a substitute for Indian sarsaparilla (Hemidesmus indicus) as alterative, antidysenteric, antipyretic, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, hypoglycemia and tonic; beneficial in anorexia, leucorrhoea, rheumatism, skin diseases, syphilis and urinary calculi.

Chemical Constituents : Stem contains α-amyrin and its acetate, lupeol and its acetate, α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)α-amyrin (I), epi-friedelinol, friedelin, β-sitosterol etc. Root contains 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Flowers contain quercetin and its 3-o-β-D-glucopyranoside. Plant also contain dotriacontanoic acid, nonane, 5-hydroxyoctacosan-25-one; Δ12-dehydrolupanyl-3β-palmitate, Δ12-dehydrolupeol, lupeol acetate, oleanolic acid, kaemferol and its 3-butyl-α-L-sorbopyranoside (the first naturally occurring compound isolated with sorbose as sugar residue), β-sitosterol and its palmitate etc.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

    

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Rauvolfia tetraphylla L., Sp. Pl. 208. 1753; Rendle in Proc. Linn. Soc. London 149: 109. 1936; Fuchs in Taxon 9: 40. 1960; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 279. 1979. R. canescens L., Sp. Pl. “ed.2”: 303. 1762; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 671. 1903. (APOCYNACEAE)

Local name :

"Bara-chandar".

Description :  Perennial, dichotomously-branched spreading undershrub, 0.8-1.5 m high, pubescent. Leaves 4(3)-nately whorled, 2-9 x 1-4.5 cm, elliptic, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-obovate, acute or acuminate at apex, acute or cuneate at base, entire, green above, pale-green beneath; petiole 1-5 mm long. Cymes 3-4 nate; peduncle 1-2.5 cm long; 3-6 flowered. Calyx urceolate, hairy; lobes 1-1.5 mm long, ovate. Corolla white, hairy; tube 3.5-4.5 mm long; lobes 1-1.5 mm long, rounded. Ovary globose or subglobose, syncarpous. Drupe subglobose, 5-6 mm across.

Fl. & Fr. :

March-June.

Chromosome Number : 66 Dnyansagar, V.R. & Torne, S.G. 1967; Mitra, K. & Datta, N. 1967.

Ecology :

Planted as well as naturalized plants found near villages in shaded abundone, waste places and in shrubberies, road sides etc.

Distribution :

Rare, wild plant found only in or around Baksara, Santragachi, Mourigram, Shalimer areas.

Part used :

Whole plant and root.

Uses :  :  Whole plant used as bitter, sedative; juice mixed with castor oil applied in skin disease. Root hypotensive.

Chemical Constituents : Rootscontain α-yohimbin (rauwolsine), α, β & γ-deserpidines, raujemidine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, reserpine, sarpagine, aricine, serpiline, alstonine, corynanthine, N(a)-demethylaccedine, isoraunescine, isoreserpinine, pseudoreserpine, raunescine, renoxidine, reserpinine, serpentine, serpentinine, tetraphyllicine, tetraphylline, serposterol. Leavescontain aricine, isoreserpiline, isoreserpinine, reserpiline, α-yohimbine, tetrahydroalstonine, vellosimine etc. Seed oil contains archidic, behenic, lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, stearic acids.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

 

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Rouvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz, For. Fl. Burma 2: 171. 1877; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 632. 1882; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 671. 1903. Ophioxylon serpentinum L., Sp. Pl. 1043. 1753. (APOCYNACEAE)

Local name :

"Sarpagandha".

Description :  Erect, glabrous, perennial undershrub, up to 1 m high. Leaves in whorls of 3, 7-17 x 2-6 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate at apex, tapering at base, entire, shining green above, pale beneath; petiole 0.4-0.9 cm long. Cymes corymbose, dense, many-flowered, 2-5 cm in diam.; peduncle 4-7 cm long; pedicel 4-6 mm long, red; bract 2-3 mm long, subulate. Calyx bright red; lobes 1.5-2 mm long, lanceolate, each with 2 marginal glands. Corolla 1-1.5 cm long, pinkish; tube slender. Slightly inflated about the middle, often curved; throat hairy; lobes elliptic-oblong 3-4 mm long. Disk annular, obscurely lobed. Drupe single or didymous and connate, 5-6 mm in diam., purplish black when ripe.

Fl. :

April-July.

Fr. :

June-Sept.

Chromosome Number : 20 Singh, D.N. 1961; Raghavan, R.S. 1957; 22 Haque, A. & Hossain, Md. A. 1973, De. M. 1979; 22 , 44 Koul, M.L.H. 1964; Banerjee, R. 1972; 24 Chandra, V. 1957.

Ecology :

Less frequently found in sbrubberies and abundone places, mostly undershade.

Distribution :

Less common, throughout the district.

Part used :

Roots, leaves.

Properties :

Rootsare bitter, acrid, laxatives, anthelmintic, sialagogue, abortifacient, analgesic, thermogenic, hypotensive, diuretic, sedative etc.

Uses : Roots are useful in strangury, insanity, neuropsychiatric disorders, schizophrenia, depression, heart disorders, worms, fever, wounds, colic, insomnia, hypertension, epilepsy, giddiness. The decoction of the root is used to increase uterine contractions. Leaves juice used to remove corneal opacities. Reserpine reduces noradrenaline and serotonin in the brain and thus possess neurotropic properties and used in anxiety, fear, tension, aggressiveness and chronic schizophrenia.

Chemical Constituents : Root contain a numerous indole and indoline alkaloids viz. Ajmalicidine (1-carbomethoxy-17-α-hydroxy-16-decarbomethoxy-16-17-dihydroajmali-cine), aj-malimine, (21-trimethoxybenzoyl ajmaline), ajmaline, ajmalinimine, ajmalinine, ajmalicine, isoajmaline, ajmalidine, alstonine, aricine, corynanthine, canembine, deserpidine, eosarpegine, mitroridine, obscuridine, obscurine, picrinine, purpeline, perakine, isopsuedoresperpine, isoraunesicine, isoreserpine indobine, indobinine, isoreserpiline, isoreserpinine, neoreserpiline, rescinnamidine, rescinnamine, rescinnaminol, renoxidine, rescinnamine, rescinnaminol, renoxidine, reserpiline, reserpine, raujemedine, rauvomitine, rauwolfinine, rauwoxine, raucaffridine, raudaffricine raunamineraucaffriline, raunamine, rauwolfine, serpentine, serpentinine, seredine, sarpagine, rauniticine, raunitidine, raumitorine, raunatine, rauvanine, resajmaline, tetraphylline, tetraphyllicine, yohimbine, α-yohimbine (rauwolscine), 3-epi-α-yohimbine, yohimbinine, sandwicensine, samatine, semperflorine, sandwicolidine, sandwicoline etc.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

   

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Aristolochia indica L., sp. Pl. 960. 1753; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 75. 1886; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 891. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 130. 1979. (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE)

Local name :

"Isharmul".

Description :  Perennial twining herb with woody root stock. Branches slender, sulcate, glabrous. Leaves 5-9.5x2.5-4 cm, usually obovate-oblong or subpandurate, base cuneate or subtruncate, apex acuminate; petioles 1-1.5 cm long. Flowers in 2-5 or many-flowered axillary racemes; bracts 1-2 mm; pedicels 5-10 mm. Perianth dull white-purple outside 2.2-3.2 cm long, tube inflated at base, faintly 6-grooved, then constricted into a narrow tube and bent nearly at right angle with a purple oblique trumpet shaped mouth of ± 7 mm across and passes into an oblong strap-shaped 12-16 mm long brownish-purple appendage. Anther 6. Style 6-lobed. Capsule 3-4 cm long, broadly oblong opening from the base upward, 6-valved. Seeds deltoid-ovate, winged.

Fl. & Fr. :

July-Feb.

Chromosome Number : 12 Venugopalan, S. 1949; Sharma, A.K. & Varma, B. 1959; Sanjappa, M. 1978.

Ecology :

Rare occurrence in hedges, thickets, in abandoned dilapidated walls, along railway line.

Distribution :

Rare, throuthout the district.

Part used :

Roots, leaves, fruits.

Properties :

Roots are better, acrid, astringent, thermogenic, purgative, anodyne, depurative, digestive, anthelmintic, stomachic, cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, sudorific, febrifuge, anti periodic, emmenagogue and tonic.

Uses :  Roots useful in ulcers, arthralgia, inflammations, leprosy, leucoderma, skin disease, dyspepsia; intestinal worms, colic, flatulence, strangury, cardiac debility, fever, intermittent fever, cough, catarrh, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, dystocia, obdominal disorders in children and all types of poisonous bites & stings. Leaves used to treat cholera, bowel complaints, and intermittent fevers in children leave paste used in inflammations. Seeds used in inflammation, biliousness, dry cough, arthralgia and dyspnoea in children.

Chemical Constituents : Root contain phenanthrene derivaties – Aristolochic acid, Aristololactum, Aristololactum-β-D-glcicoside, Aristolic acid, Aristoloamide, Methyl aristolochate, 6-methoxy Me-aristolate, aristololide Alkaloids-1-curine (aristolochine). Sesquiterpenoids – Ishwarane, Ishwarene, Aristolochene, Selin-4(14), 11-diene, Sesquiterpene A, B, Ishwarol, Ledol, Irhwarone. Steroids – β sitosterol, sterol glycoside, stigmast-4-en-3-one, Napthoquinone-aristolindiquinone. Others - ceryl alcohol, Allantoin, ρ-coumaric acid, d-camphor.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

 

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Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. in Ait. f., Hort. Kew. 2: 78. 1811; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 17. 1883; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 688. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 286. 1979. Asclepias gigantea L., Sp. Pl. 214. 1753. (ASCLEPIADACEAE)

Local name :

"Akanda".

Description :  Erect large shrubs to small tree, to 3 m high, young parts downy-tomentose. Leaves sessile or subsessile, 7-16 x 4.5-8 cm, obovate-oblong or panduriform, cordate and semi-amplexicaul at base, abruptly acute at apex, pale green, glabrous above, cottony beneath. Cymes subumbellate; peduncles 5-10 cm long; pedicels 2-3 cm long. Bracts and bracteoles ± 1 cm long, lanceolate. Flowers 2.5-4.5 cm across, calyx-lobes 4-6 mm long, ovate, acute, puberulous outside. Corolla 1.5-1.8 cm long, purplish; segments 1-1.3 cm long, spreading, deltoid-ovate, subacute, revolute and twisted in age, thick-fleshy. Corona-lobes 1-1.2 cm long, shorter than the staminal column, pubescent, apex rounded with 2 obtuse auricles below it; top of column 5-angled. Follicles in pairs, boat-shaped, 6-10 x 3-4 cm, recurved, inflated, glabrous, green. Seeds numerous, 5-6 mm long, broadly ovate, flattened, brown, minutely tomentose, with 2.5-3 cm long silky coma.

Fl. & Fr. :

Feb.-Aug.

Chromosome Number : 22 Sreedevi, P. & Namboodiri, A.N. 1977; Mukherjee, P. 1980.

Ecology :

Commonly found along roadside, railway track in open waste-lands near village surroundings etc.

Distribution :

Very common, throughout the district.

Part used :

Root, root-bark, leaves, latex, flowers.

Properties :

The whole plant is a good tonic, expectorant, depurative, anthelmintic, antiseptic, emetic, antiphlogistic. Leaves are antiphlogistic, acrid. Latex is antiseptic, vesicant, prophylaxis, and purgative. Root bark is febrifuge, anthelmintic, depurative, expectorant, laxative, substitute for ipecacuanha, antidysentric, antispasmodic, diaphoretic.

Uses :  Root-barkis useful in cutaneous diseases, intestinal worms, cough, ascites, anasarca, dysentery, constipation, piles, syphilis, elephantiasis, hydrocele; root smoke inhaled in case of migraine. Roasted leaves applied to painful joints on swellings; powder boiled in oil useful in eczema, skin eruptions, toothache, ulcers, wounds; tincture in intermittent fevers. Latex in low doses employed in asthma, bronchitis, allergy, prophylactic against malaria, produces abortion when a stick smeared with the latex is applied locally to induce uterine contractions.
Flowersare useful in asthma, catarrah, anorexia, inflammations, tumours. In large doses it is purgative and emetic.

Chemical Constituents : Root contains cardiac glycoside (calotropin, uscharidin), 1-methoxy-4-ethylnaphthalene; 6-(2-methyl-2, 3-dihydroxypentyl)-11, 11-dimethylcyclohexanyl-14, 19, 25 (tricyclo)-3,7, 11-trihydroxymethylenetridecane and 8, 15-dihydrobenzofuranyl-18-hepta-7, 15-dione-16-oic acid; calactin, calotroposides C,D,E,F,G (five oxypregnane-oligoglycosides, two oxypregnane-oligoglycosides, calotroposides A & B, designated as 12-o-benzoyllinedon-3-o-β-D-Cymaropyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-cy-maropyranoside and 12-o-benzoyldeacetyl-metaplexigenin 3-o-β-D-cymaropyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl, (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl, (1→4)-β-D-cymaro-pyranoside, uzarigenin etc.

Root-bark contains isovalerates of a kundrol, mudarol, giganticine (noprotein amino acid), β-amyrin, β-amyrinacetate, tetracyclic resinols, sterols, acetic, isovaleric acids, isogiganteol, taraxasterol and its ψ-isomer, triterpenes identified as lup-13(18), 19(29)-dien-9α-yl acetate, lupeol acetate, urs-18β-H-12, 20(30)-dien-3β-yl-acetate and 17β-hydroxy-28-normethyl urs-18α-H-12, 20(30)-dien-3β-yl-acetate etc.

Flowers contain flavonol glycosides, hyperoside, rutin, amyrin, stigmasterol, anthocyanin, α and β-calotropeols etc.

Leaves contain holarrhetine, cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside, tarasasterol isovalerate, taraxasteryl acetate, β-sitosterol, amino acids.

Latex contains α and β-calotropeol, β-amyrin, gigantin, (toxic principle), proteases: calotropins DI & DII; Calotropins FI & FII, ester of acetic and isovaleric acids, glutathione, 3´-methylbutanoates of α-amyrin and ψ-taraxasterol, uscharin etc.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

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Dregea volubilis L.f.) Benth. ex Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 46. 1883; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 697. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 288. 1979. Asclepias volubilis L. f., Suppl. 170. 1781. Wattakaka volubilis (L.f.) Stapf. in Curtis, Bot. Mag. t. 8976. 1923. (ASCLEPIADACEAE)

Local name :

"Titakunga".

Description :  Shrubby twiners, young parts tomentose. Leaves opposite, 9-22 x 5.5-12 cm, ovate or suborbicular, acuminate at apex, cordate or rounded at base, entire; petioles 4-6 cm long. Flowers numerous in umbels arrising at the sides of the petiole, green or yellowish green; peduncles equalling or slightly longer than the petiole; pedicels 1.5-2.5 cm long, slender. Calyx deeply partite; lobes spreading, lanceolate, subacute. Corolla deeply partite, 5.5-6 mm long, glabrous without; lobes broadly-ovate, obtuse at apex. Corona-lobes 5, fleshy, spreading, shining green. Staminal-column arising from the base of the corolla. Stigma dome-shaped. Follicles 2, 7-10 x 2-3.5 cm, turgid, striate, glabrous, slightly tapering towards the tip into a blunt point. Seeds 1 cm long, obovoid, flattened, yellowish-brown; coma 3.5-4.5 cm long.

Fl. & Fr. :

May-Jan.

Chromosome Number : 22 Biswas, I. 1957; Sreedevi, P. & Namboodiri, A.N. 1977, 1979.

Ecology :

Found in the hedges and shrubberies of village surroundings.

Distribution :

Infrequent, throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plant, leaves, stem, roots and fruits.

Properties :

Root and tender shoots are emetic, astringent, bitter, depurative, purgative, cooling, aphrodisiac, febrifuge, expectorant. Leaves are bitter, astringent, antiseptic, depurative, febrifuge, expectorant.

Uses :  Whole plant useful in eye diseases. Leaves applied to boils and abscesses; leaves and fruits are employed in diabetes, toxiemia, bronchitis, fever etc. Stem and root emetic, purgative, are employed in diabetes, leucorrhoea, asthma, cough, fever, etc.

Chemical Constituents Stem contains glycosides viz.-drevogenin A-3-o-3-o-methyl-6-deoxy-β-D-allopyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl(1→4)-β-D- cyma-ropyranoside (dregeoside Ap1), drevogenin A-3-o-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→4)-3-o-methyl-6-deoxy-β-D-allopyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl (1-4)-β-D-cymaropyra-nosyl (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyrano-side (dregeoside Ao1), drevogenin A-3-o-3-o-methyl-6-deoxy-β-D-al-lopyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranside (drege-oside Aa1), drevogenin A-3-o-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→4)-3-o-metlyl-6-deoxy-β-D-allopyra-nosyl (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (dregeoside A11), drevo-genin C-3-o-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→4)-3-o-methyl-6-deoxy-β-D-allopyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (Dregeoside C11), drebyssogenin K2-3-o-3-o-methyl-6-deoxy-β-D-allopyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-oleandropyranosyl(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyra-nosyl (1→4)-β-D- cymaropy-ranoside (dregeoside Kp1), drebyssogenin K2-3-o-3-o-methyl-6-deoxy-β-D-allopyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranosyl (1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (dregeoside Ka1).

Bark contain kaempferol and its 3-galactoside, β-sitosterol.

Root contains hydrolysate of crude glycoside yields α-methylpachybioside and α-methyldredehongbioside.
Plant also contain dregeosides H, Dp1, Da1, Gp1, Ga1 and dregeatrioge.

Seedscontain drevogenin D, drevogenin B, drevogenin A, drevogenin P, etc.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

 

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Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex Schult., Syst. Veg. ed. 15, 6: 57. 1820; Hook f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 29. 1883; Haines, Bot. Bihar & Orissa Pt. 4: 556. 1922. Periploca sylvestre Retz. Obs. Bot. 2: 15. 1781. (ASCLEPIADACEAE)

Description :  Much-branched, slender, pubescent climbers. Leaves simple, opposite, 3.5-5x2.5-3 cm, thinly coriaceous, ovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, rounded, truncate or subcordate at base, acute or shortly acuminate at apex, entire, pubescent; petiole 7-10 mm, pubescent. Cymes much shorter than leaves. Flowers minute, 3-3.5 mm across, pale-yellow; pedicel slender, 3-4 mm, long; bracts minute. Calyx up to 1 mm, 5-partite; segments broadly ovate. Corolla 2 mm long; lobes 5, spreading, recurved, corona 5. Stigma subglobose, exserted beyond the anthers. Follicles 6-7.5 cm long, slender, glabrous. Seeds ovoid-oblong, flat, margined, pale-brown.

Fl. :

Aug.-Sept.

Fr. :

Jan.-Mar.

Chromosome Number : 22 Sreedevi, P. & Namboodiri A.N. 1977; Sanjappa, M. & Sathyananda, N. 1979.

Ecology :

Climbing on bushes and hedges.

Distribution :

Rare, so far found only in one spot (Noupala, Deulti).

Part used :

Whole plant, Leaves, Roots.

Properties :

Plant bitter, astringent, acrid, thermogenic, anti-inflammatory, sialagogue, anodyne, digestive, liver tonic, emetic, diuretic, stomachic, stimulant, anthelmintic, alexipharmic, uterine tonic, antipyretic, expectorant, laxative, antiperiodic. Leaves hypoglycaemic, when chewed paralyse temporarily the sense of taste for sweet and bitter. Root is astringent, emetic, expectorant, refrigerant, stomachic, tonic.

Uses : Plant is useful in inflammations, colds, diabetes, worms, liver disorders, headache, hepatosplenomegaly, dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, haemorrhoids, strangury, renal and vesical calculi, helminthiasis, cardiopathy, cough, asthma, bronchitis, intermittent fever, amenorrhoea, conjunctivitis, leucoderma. Leaves mixed with castor oil applied externally to swollen glands and to enlarged spleen; powder diuretic and stimulant.

Chemical Constituents Plant contains gymnamine (alkaloid); hentriacontane, non-acosane, pentatriacontane, tritriacon; conduritol A (cyclic alcohol); inositol, d-quercitol; α- & β-chlorophylls; butyric, formic and tartaric acids; β-amyrin, lupeol; stigmasterol; gymnamosaponins (I-V); D-glucosides of 3β, 16β, 23, 28-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene, dammarane type saponins-gimnemasides (I-VII), gymnemagenin (3β, 16β, 21β, 22α, 23, 28-hexahydroxy-olean-12-ene), gymnestrogenin (3β, 16β, 21β, 23, 28-pentahydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3´-0-β-D-arabino 2-hexenopyranosylgymnemic and gymnemic acids, viz., 3-0-β-D-glucouronopyranosyl-gymnemagenin, its 21-o-acetyl-and tigloy-21-o-(2-methyl butyryl)-and 21, 22-0-ditigloyl derivatives, 3-0[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-21-0-tigloyl-gymnemagenin and 3-0-β-D-glucuronopyranosylgymnestrogenin; gypenoside, gynosaponin TN-2, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid,isoleucine, valine; adenine; choline, betaine etc.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

   

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Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov., Result. Sc. Miss. Stefani-Paoli Somal. Ital. 1: 115. 1916; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 284. 1979. Asclepias daemia Forsk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 51. 1775. Daemia extensa (Jacq.) R. Br. in Ait. f., Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 2: 76. 1811; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 20. 1883; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 692. 1903. (ASCLEPIADACEAE)

Local name :

"Chagulbati".

Description :  Twining herb; stems hispidly hairy. Leaves 5-12 x 3-10 cm, broadly ovate to suborbiculr with rounded incurved basal lobes, acute to subacuminate at apex, glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath; petiole 4-9 cm long. Flowers in corymbose racemose cymes, drooping; peduncle 5-12 cm long, interpetiolar, stout, pubescent; pedicels 1.5-4 cm long, pubescent, slender, bracts minute, linear. Calyx 3-3.5 mm long, pubescent; lobes small, ovate-lanceolate, acute. Corolla 1-1.2 cm long; greenish-yellow or dull white; tube short infundibular; lobes twice as long as the tube, ovate-oblong, acute, spreading with reflexed villous margin; staminal corona in 2 series, outer a five-lobed, denticulate annuals at base of staminal column, the inner of 5 fleshy segments attached to column above its base. Follicles 4-5.5 cm long, lanceolate, narrowed into a long beak, softly-echinate, puberulous. Seed 5-6 mm long, broadly ovate, pubescent with, ciliate margin.

Fl. & Fr. :

Oct.-Jan.

Chromosome Number : 22 Navaneetham, N. 1980;

24 Mitra, K. & Datta, N. 1967.

Ecology :

Commonly found in shrubbries hedges, fences near and with in villages.

Distribution :

Common throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plant, leaves, root-bark, fruits.

Properties :

Plantis astringent, acrid, thermogenic, emetic, expectorant, emmenagogue, anthelmintic, antipyretic, laxative.

Leavesare bitter, thermogenic, anthelmintic, expectorant, emmenagogue and depurative.

Fruitsare acrid, thermogenic, expectorant, digestive.

Uses :  :  Plant is useful in urethrorrhoea, stangury, metropathy, inflammations, cough, asthma, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, intermittent fever, leucoderma; extract given in uterine and menstrual disorders and to facilitate parturition.

Leavesare useful in cough, helminthesis, asthma, haemorrhoids dyspepsia; juice given in catarrhal affections, infantile diarrhoea; combined with lime applied to rheumatic swellings; poultice prepared from fresh leaves applied to carbuncles, piles.

Root-barkmixed with cow’s milk used as pargative.

Fruitsare useful in cough, asthma, bronchitis, dyspepsia.

Chemical Constituents : Plant contains coroglaucigenin, uzarigenin, hentriacontane, β-amyrin, betaine, 5β-stigmast-7(8)-en-3α-ol, 5β-stigmast-8(14)-en-3α-ol; sugar residues of the hydrolysates of cardiac glycosides are D-cymarose, D-glucose, L-oleandrose, D-sermentose.

Leavescontain 3β-hydroxyfriedelan-7-one, lupeol and its acetate, oleanolic acid, putranjivadione, β-sitosterol.

Rootscontain lupeol, α-amyrin and their acetate, β-sitosterol and its glucoside, calactin, calotropin.

Seedscontain coroglaucigenin, uzarigenin, calactin, calotropin, calotropigenin, corotoxigenin, dihydrocalotropigenin, protouscharin, uscharidin, uscharin etc.

Chemical structures of some compounds

    

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Sarcostemma secamone (L.) Bennet in Indian For. 95: 692. 1969 & Fl. Howrah Dist. 285. 1979. Periploca secamone L., Mant. 2: 216. 1771. Sarcostemma esculentum (L.f.) R. Holm in Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 37: 482. 1950; Backer & Brink, Fl. Java. 2: 259. 1965. Oxystelma esculentum (L.f.) R. Br. ex Schult. in Syst. Veg. 4: 89. 1820. O. secamone (L.) Karst., Deut. Fl. 1031. 1880-1883. (ASCLEPIADACEAE)

Local name :

"Dudhlata".

Description :  Perennial much-branched slender twining herb with milky latex. Leaves 7-13 x 0.3-0.8 cm, deciduous, linear or linear-lanceolate, acuminate at apex, acute or rounded, pale green, glabrous; petiole 4-8 mm long, slender. Flowers large, drooping, in pedunculate lateral subumbellate or racemose few flowered cymes, longer or shorter than the leaves. Calyx glabrous, divided nearly to base; segment 5, 3.5-4.5 mm long, oblong-lanceolate. Corolla saucer-shaped, 2.5-3 cm in diam, rosy with purple-violet veins; segments 0.8-1 cm long, apex acute, margin densely villous. Corona staminal; lobes 5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate with incurved entire, subulate tips. Anthers with inflexed deltoid tips. Follicles 4-6 cm long, ovoid-lanceolate, tapering towards the tip. Seeds many, 2.5-3 mm long, broadly-ovate, flat, black; coma 15-19 mm long.

Fl. :

Aug.-Oct.

Fr. :

Nov.-Dec.

Chromosome Number : 22 Navaneetham, N. 1980.

Ecology :

Infrequently occurs in marshy and semimarshy areas. Often in association with Typha.

Distribution :

Rare, in few part of the district.

Part used :

Whole plant, root, latex.

Uses :  :  Whole plant antiseptic, depurative and galactagogue; decoction (used as gargle) beneficial in stomatitis and in sore throat, latex hastens healing.

Rootefficacious in Jaundice.

Chemical Constituents : Roots contain a preghane ester oligoglycoside, calogenin-3-o-β-D-oleandropyranosyl (1→4)-0-β-D-thevetopyranosyl (1→4)-o-β-D-cymaropyranosyl (1→4)-o-β-D-o-digitoxopyranoside (oxysine), a triglycoside-sarcogenin-3-o-β-D-thevetopyranosyl-(1→4)-o-β-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-o-β-D-oleandropyrano-side (esculentin), cardenolide tetraglyco-side, viz., 3-epi-uzarigenin-3-o-β-D-cymaropyranosyl (1→4)-o-β-D-theveto-pyranosyl-(1→4)-o-β-D-cymaropyrano-syl(1→4)-o-β-d-digitoxopyranoside (oxyline) and 12-o-cinnamoyl-desacyl-metaplexi-genin-3-o-β-D-cyamaropyranosyl-(1→4)-o-β-D-thevetopyra-nosyl (1→4)-o-β-D-pyranosyl (1→4)-o-β-D-cymaro-pyranosyl (1→4)-o-β-D-digitoxopyrano-side (oxystine).

Chemical structures of some compounds:

 

   

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Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill in Philip., J. Sci. 19: 373. 1921; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 286. 1979. Cynanchum indicum Burm. f., Fl. Ind. 70. 1768. Tylophora asthmatica Wight & Arn. in Wight, Contri. 51. 1834; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 44. 1883; Prain, Bengal Pl. 2: 698. 1903. (ASCLEPIADACEAE)

Local name :

"Antamul".

Description :  Perennial twiner; stem not much branched; roots somewhat fleshy. Leaves 5-10 x 2-6 cm, subfleshy, ovate or ovate oblong, acute or acuminate, often apiculate at apex, subcordate or rounded at base, entire, glabrous; petiole 1-2 cm long. Flowers in umbellate cymes. Peduncles shorter than the leaves, each bearing at its apex 2-3 nearly sessile umbels; pedicels slender; bracts linear. Calyx divided almost to the base; segments 3-4 mm long, linear-lanceolate, acute. Corolla yellowish-green with brown in side at base, 7.5-8.5 mm in diam.; lobes oblong, obtuse, 3 mm long. Corona large, gibbous below, abruptly narrowed at the apex to a free point, free tip nearly equal to the style apex. Follicles 7-10 cm long, tapering to a fine point at the apex, striate, glabrous. Seeds 7-8.5 mm long, broadly ovate; coma 2-2.5 cm long.

Fl. :

Feb.-May.

Fr. :

July-Sept.

Chromosome Number : 22 Sarkar, A.K. et al., 1973;

Sarkar, A.K., Datta, N. & Chatterjee, U. 1980.

Ecology :

Commonly found in hedges & thickets.

Distribution :

Common throughout the district.

Part used :

Whole plants, leaves, root.

Properties :

The root and leaves are acrid, bitter, abortifacient, thermogenic, emetic, purgative, expectorant, diaphoretic, stomachic.

Uses :  Whole plant is a substitute for ipecac. Leaves are used as diaphoretic, emetic, expectorant; in powder form useful in diarrhoea, dysentery; decoction of leaves as well as root beneficial in asthma, bronchitis, diarrhoea and dysentery. Root highly effective as a alterative and anti-rheumatic, expectorant in chronic bronchitis and early stages of whooping cough, stimulant; reduces lochia, relieves pain in gout when applied locally; powder useful in intermittent malarial fever. Also useful in piles, cancerous tumours, leukaemia, etc.

Chemical Constituents :  Aerial parts contain anhydrodehydrotylophorinine, anhydro-dehydrotylophorinidine, dehydrotylophorine, emetic, skimmianine, tyloindane, tyloindicines A–J, (+)-14-hydroxyiso-tylocrebrine, 4,6-desdimethylisotylocrebrine, 6-desmethyl-tylophorine, 5-hydroxy-o-methyl-tylophorinidine. Leaves, stem, root contain ceryl alcohol, glucose, quercetin, kaemferol, caoutchouc, p-methoxy salicylaldehyde, resin, tannin, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, tetratricontanol, octacosanyl octacosanoate, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytosterol, 2,3,6-7-tetramethoxy-phenanthro[9,10: 6,7] indolizidine (tylophorine), tylophorinidine, tylophorinine. Leaves also contain (+)-isotylocrebrine, (+)-septicine. Root also contains alkaloid A, demethyltylophorine, demethyl-tylophorinine, γ-fegarine, tylophorinicine.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

  

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Ageratum conyzoides L., Sp. Pl. 839. 1753; Clarke, Comp. Ind. 30. 1876; Hook. f. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 3: 243. 1881; Prain, Bengal Pl. 1: 591. 1903; Bennet, Fl. Howrah Dist. 375. 1979. (ASTERACEAE)

Local name :

"Uchunti".

Description :  Erect, aromatic, annual herbs, 20-100 cm tall, hispid or glabrous, much branched. Leaves opposite, 3-7 x 2-5 cm, broadly ovate or rhomboid-ovate, subacute or subobtuse at apex, subcordate, rounded or truncate at base, margin crenate, hirsute thinly with long spreading hairs; petiole 0.5-3 cm long, slender. Heads in dense terminal corymbs or panicles, 4-5 mm long, 4-6 mm across; involucre campanulate, bracts 4.5-5 x 0.8-1.2 mm, oblong, acuminate, sparingly hairy. Corolla 2.5-3.5 mm long, white or pale violet or pale purple. Achenes narrowly oblong, black, minutely hirsute on angles, 1.5-1.6 cm long. Pappus of 5 aristate bristles, dilated and connate at base, scabrous on margins, 1.6-1.8 cm long.

Fl. & Fr. :

Throughout the year, but mostly in January – May.

Chromosome Number : 20 Mehra, D.N. & Sidhu, S.S. 1960; Sarkar, A.K. et al. 1974; Olsen, J. 1980.
20, 40 Dey, D. & Sharma, A.K. 1968; Gupta, P.K. 1969.
38 Sharma, A.K. & Verma, B. 1960.
40 Turner, B.L. & King, R.M. 1964; Harvey 1966; Jansen, R.K. & Stuessy, T.F. 1980.

Ecology :

Common in waste places, garden lands, along roadsides, railway tracks, etc.

Distribution :

Common, throughout the district.

Parts used :

Whole plants, leaves, root.

Properties Plant is antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antiallergic, diuretic, stimulant, febrifuge. Leaves are styptic. Roots are acrid, bitter, digestive, appetizer.

Uses : Whole plant decoction or fresh juice of plant is employed in rhinitis, sinusitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatism, fever, dyspepsia, anorexia, calculi, prolapsed ani. Juice of the fresh plant is useful in post-partum uterine haemorrhage also. A hair wash consisting of a decoction of the fresh plant makes the hair fragrant soft and dandruff-free, prevents tetanus. Leaves paste applied on boils, wounds, piles, sores, for fomentation in leprosy and other skin diseases; styptic. Root juice antidysenteric and antilithic.

Chemical Constituents : Aerial parts / whole plant contain caryophyllene oxide, (+)-sesamin, echinatine, lycopsamine, chromoenes: 6-angeloyloxy-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, encecaline, encecanescins (mixer), 6-(1-ethoxyethyl)-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, 6-(1-hydroxyethyl)-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, 6-(1-methoxyethyl)-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, prococenes I and II, 6-vinyl-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene; flavones: 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-haeptamethoxyfalvone (5'-methoxynobiletin), 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone (nobiletin), 5,6,7,8,3',5'-hexamethoxy-4'-hydroxyflavone, 5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethonyflavone, 5,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavone (Sinensetin), 5,6,7,8,5'-penta-methoxy-3',4'-methylene-dioxyflavone (eupalestin), 5,6,7,3',5'-pentamethoxy-4'-hydroxy flavone (ageconyflavone C), 5,6,7,8-tetramethoxy-3'-4'-methylenedioxy flavone (linderoflavone B), 5,6,7,3'-tetramethoxy-4'-hydroxy flavone (ageconyflavone B), 5,6,7,3',5'-pentamethoxy-4'-hydroxyflavone (agecony flavone C), 5,6,7,5'-tetramethoxy-3'-4'-methylene dioxy flavone, 5,6,7,-trimethoxy-3'-4'-methylenedioxy flavone (ageconyflavone A); ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, spinasterol. Dihydrospinasterol, brassicasterol, dihydrobassicasterol.

Leaves contain dotriacontane, conyzorigun (= eupalestin), 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxy flavone (5'-methoxynobiletin), kaemferol. Kaemferol-3-rhamno-glucoside, kaemferol-3, 7-diglucoside, quercetin, caffeic and fumaric acids, a-spinasterol, stigmasterol, stigmasa-7-en-3-ol.

Seeds contain ß-caryophyllene, ? and d-cadinene, eugenol, methyleugenol, ocimene, d-a-pinene; ageratochromene, 6-demethoxy ageratochromene, 7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchro-mene, 6,7,6'-7'-tetramethoxy-2,2,2',2'-tetramethyl-3',4'-dehydro-3'-45-bichroman (agerato-chromene dimmer) from essential oil of the herb, hexadecanoic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitic, oleic and stearic acids.

Chemical structures of some compounds:

   

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