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| Last Updated:: 26/09/2016

Lichens in India

 

 LIST OF FAMILIES AND GENERA OF LICHEN IN INDIA 

 

Lichens, nature’s most unique and successful alliances constitute one of the important components of biodiversity and occur on various substrata such as bark and twigs of trees, rocks, soil, and leaves in almost all suitable climatic conditions starting from tropical to alpine regions and polar regions of Antarctica. In India, they are represented by 2532 species under 324 genera and 78 families including 541 endemic (21.3 %) species (G.P. Sinha, unpublished data). Although lichens occur everywhere in the country but their major centres of diversity and occurrence in India are Eastern Himalaya, Northeastern India, Western Ghats, Western Himalaya and Andaman and Nicobar islands. These grow from sea level to 5000 m altitude and show their best manifestation in tropical to temperate regions.

Lichens are very useful to people in diverse cultures, especially as a source of stuff, dyes, crude drugs, medicines, perfumery, agrochemicals and other useful compounds. A variety of natural products isolated from lichens have been found to exhibit a wide range of potentially useful biological activities such as inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, cancer growth, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects.

These have even greater potential for novel biological activities including inhibition of tyrosinase, inhibition of activation of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Superoxide Dimutase-like (SOD-like) activity, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Now days, lichens have been used worldwide to evaluate air quality, climate change, as well as an effective early-warning system to detect accumulation of heavy metals and radioactive materials in terrestrial ecosystems. Lichens are excellent indicators of ecosystem health and play a significant role in nature, influencing soil fertility through nutrients and nitrogen fixation, in addition to water cycle and other significance.               

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Family

Genera

Acarosporaceae

1.            Acarospora A. Massal.

2.            Glypholecia Nyl.

3.            Pleopsidium Körb.

4.            Sarcogyne Flot.

Agyriaceae

1.            Trapeliopsis Hertel & Gotth. Schneid  

2.            Xylographa (Fr.) Fr.

Arthoniaceae

1.            Arthonia Ach.

2.            Cryptothecia Stirt.

3.            Herpothallon Tobler

4.            Stirtonia A.L. Sm.

Arthopyreniaceae

1.            Arthopyrenia A. Massal.

2.            Mycomicrothelia Keissl.

Aspidotheliaceae

1.            Aspidothelium Vain.

Asterothyriaceae

1.            Asterothyrium Müll. Arg.

Baeomycetaceae

1.            Baeomyces Pers.

Biatorellaceae

1.            Biatorella De Not.

Caliciaceae

1.            Acroscyphus Lëv.

2.            Amandinea M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer

3.             Baculifera Marbach & Kalb

4.            Buellia De Not.

5.            Calicium Pers.

6.            Cratiria Marbach

7.            Cyphelium Ach.  

8.            Dimelaena Norman em Beltr.

9.            Diploicia A. Massal.

10.       Dirinaria (Tuck.) Clem.

11.       Hafellia Kalb & al.

12.       Pyxine Fr.

13.       Sculptolumina Marbach  

 

Family

Genera

Candelariaceae  

1.            Candelaria A. Massal.

2.            Candelariella Müll. Arg.

Catillariaceae

1.            Catillaria A. Massal.

2.            Placolecis Trevis.

3.            Toninia A. Massal.

Chrysothricaceae

1.            Chrysothrix Mont.

Cladoniaceae

1.            Cladia Nyl.   

2.            Cladonia P. Browne

3.            Gymnoderma Nyl.  

4.            Pilophorus Th. Fr.

Coccocarpaceae

1.            Coccocarpia Pers.

Coenogoniaceae

1.            Coenogonium Ehrenb.

Collemataceae

1.            Collema Weber ex F.H. Wigg.

2.            Leptogium (Ach.) Gray

3.            Physma A. Massal.

Coniocybaceae

1.            Coniocybe Ach.

Crocyneaceae

1.            Crocynia (Ach.) A. Massal.

Ectolechiaceae

1.            Badimia Vězda

2.            Calopadia Vězda

3.            Lasioloma R. Sant.

4.            Loflammia Vězda

5.            ? Lopadium Körb.

6.            Sporopodium Mont.

7.            ? Tapellaria Müll. Arg.

Fuscideaceae

1.            Maronea A. Massal.

Gomphillaceae

1.            Aderkomyces Bat.

2.            Aulaxina Fée

3.            Calenia Müll. Arg.

4.            Caleniopsis Vězda & Poelt

5.            Echinoplaca Fée

6.            Gyalectidium Müll. Arg.

 

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Family

Genera

Gomphillaceae (Contd…)

7.            Gyalideopsis Vězda

8.            Tricharia Fée

Graphidaceae

1.            Acanthothecis Clem.

2.            Anomomorpha Nyl. ex Hue

3.            Carbacanthographis Staiger & Kalb

4.            Diorygma Eschw.

5.            Dyplolabia A. Massal.

6.            Fissurina Fée

7.            Glyphis Ach.

8.            Graphina Müll. Arg.

9.            Graphis Adans.

10.       Hemithecium Trevis.

11.       Leiorreuma Eschw.

12.       Pallidogramme Staiger & al.

13.       Phaeographina Müll. Arg.

14.       Phaeographis Müll. Arg.

15.       Phaeographopsis Sipman

16.       Platygramme Fée

17.       Platythecium Staiger

18.       Sarcographa Fée

19.       ? Schistophoron Stirt.

20.       Thalloloma Trevis.

21.       Thecaria Fée

Gyalectaceae

1.            Cryptolechia A. Massal.

2.            Gyalecta Ach.

Haematommataceae

1.            Haematomma A. Massal.

Hymeneliaceae 

1.            Eiglera Hafellner

2.            Ionaspis Th. Fr.

Icmadophilaceae

1.            Dibaeis Clem.

2.            Icmadophila Trevis.

   

 

Family

Genera

Icmadophilaceae (Contd…)

3.            Siphula Fr.

4.            Thamnolia Ach. ex Schaer

Lecanoraceae

1.            Carbonea (Hertel) Hertel

2.            Lecanora Ach.

3.            Lecidella Körb.

4.            Ramboldia Kantvilas & Elix

5.            Rhizoplaca Zopf

Lecideaceae

1.            Lecidea Ach.

Letrouitiaceae

1.            Letrouitia Hafellner & Bellem.

Lichinaceae

1.            Anema Nyl.

2.            Heppia Nageli ex A. Massal.

3.            Lempholemma Körb.

4.            Peccania A. Massal. ex Arnold

5.            Phylliscum Nyl.

6.            Psorotichia A. Massal.

7.            Thyrea A. Massal.

8.            Zahlbrucknerella Herre

Lobariaceae

1.            Lobaria (Schreb.) Hoffm.

2.            Lobarina (Vain.) Nyl. ex Cromb.

3.            Pseudocyphellaria Vain.

4.            Sticta (Schreb.) Ach.

Massalongiaceae

1.            Polychidium (Ach.) Gray

Megalariaceae

1.            Megalaria Hafellner

Megalosporaceae

1.            Byssophragmia M. Choisy

2.            Megaloblastenia Sipman

3.            Megalospora Meyen

Megasporaceae

1.            Aspicilia A. Massal.

2.            Lobothallia (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Hafellner

Melaspileaceae

1.            Melaspilea Nyl.

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Family

Genera

Monoblastiaceae

1.            Anisomeridium (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy

2.            Monoblastia Riddle

Mycoblastaceae

1.            Mycoblastus Norman

Mycoporaceae

 

1.            Mycoporum Körb.

Naetrocymbaceae

1.            Naetrocymbe Körb.

2.            ? Leptorhaphis Körb.

Nephromataceae

1.            Nephroma Ach.

Ochrolechiaceae

1.            Ochrolechia A. Massal.

Pannariaceae

1.            Erioderma Fée

2.            Fuscopannaria P.M. Jørg.

3.            Kroswia P.M. Jørg.

4.            Leioderma Fée

5.            Pannaria Del.

6.            Parmeliella Müll. Arg.

7.            Vahliella P.M. Jørg.

Parmeliaceae

1.            Alectoria Ach.

2.            Allocetraria Kurok. & M.J. Lai

3.            Anzia Stizenb.

4.            Arctoparmelia Hale

5.            Bryoria Brodo & D. Hawksw.

6.            Bulbothrix Hale

7.            Canoparmelia Elix & Hale

8.            Cetraria Ach.

9.            Cetrelia W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb

10.       Cetreliopsis M.J. Lai

11.       Evernia Ach.

12.       Everniastrum Hale ex Sipman

13.       Flavocetraria Kärnefelt & A. Thell

14.       Flavocetrariella D.D. Awasthi

15.       Flavoparmelia Hale

 

                   

 

Family

Genera

Parmeliaceae (Contd…)

16.       Flavopunctelia (Krog) Hale

17.       Hypogymnia (Nyl.) Nyl.

18.       Hypotrachyna (Vain.) Hale

19.       Lethariella (Motyka) Krog

20.       Melanelia Essl.

21.       Melanelixia O. Blanco & al.

22.       Melanohalea O. Blanco & al.

23.       Menegazzia A. Massal.

24.       Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix

25.       Nephromopsis Müll. Arg.

26.       Oropogon Th. Fr.

27.       Parmelaria D.D. Awasthi

28.       Parmelia Ach.

29.       Parmelina Hale

30.       Parmelinella Elix & Hale

31.       Parmelinopsis Elix & Hale

32.       Parmeliopsis (Nyl.) Nyl.

33.       Parmotrema A. Massal.

34.       Platismatia W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb.

35.       Pleurosticta Petr.

36.       Protoparmelia M. Choisy

37.       Punctelia Krog

38.       Relicina (Hale & Kurok.) Hale

39.       Relicinopsis Elix & Verdon

40.       Sulcaria Bystrek

41.       Tuckermannopsis Gyeln.

42.       Tuckneraria Randlane & A. Thell

43.       Usnea Dill. ex Adans.

44.       Vulpicida Mattson & M.J. Lai

45.       Xanthoparmelia (Vain.) Hale

 

  

 

Family

Genera

Peltigeraceae

1.            Peltigera Willd.

2.            Solorina Ach.

Peltulaceae

1.            Peltula Nyl.

Pertusariaceae

1.            Pertusaria DC.

Phlyctidaceae

1.            Phlyctis (Wallr.) Flot.

Phyllobatheliaceae

1.            Phyllobathelium (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg.

Physciaceae

1.            Anaptychia Körb.

2.            Heterodermia Trevis. em. Poelt

3.            Hyperphyscia Müll. Arg.

4.            Phaeophyscia Moberg

5.            Physcia (Schreb.) Mich.

6.            Physconia Poelt

7.            Rinodina (Ach.) Gray

Pilocarpaceae   

1.            Bapalmuia Sérus.

2.            Byssolecania Vain.

3.            Byssoloma Trevis.

4.            Fellhanera Vìzda

5.            Micarea Fr.

Placynthiaceae

1.            Placynthium (Ach.) Gray

Porinaceae

1.            Porina Ach.

2.            Trichothelium Müll. Arg.

Porpidiaceae

1.            Porpidia Körb.

Psoraceae

1.            Lecidoma Goth. Schneid. & Hertel

2.            Protoblastenia (Zahlbr.) J. Steiner

3.            Psora Hoffm.

Pyrenulaceae

1.            Anthracothecium Hampe ex A. Massal.

2.            Lithothelium Müll. Arg.

3.            Pyrenula Ach.

4.            Pyrgillus Nyl.

 

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Family

Genera

Ramalinaceae

1.            Bacidia De Not.

2.        &n