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| Last Updated:: 29/08/2016

Indian Mangroves

INDIAN MANGROVES

 

WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF MANGROVES

LIST OF MANGROVES

BHUVAN GIS MAP AND LINKS

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WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF MANGROVES

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LIST OF MANGROVES

 

A  B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

 

A

 

 

Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl

Acanthus ilicifolius L.

Acanthus volubillis Wall.

Acrostichum aureum L.

Aegialitis rotundlfolia Roxb.

Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco [= Rhizophora corniculata L.; A. majus Gaertn.)

Aglaia cucullata (Roxb.) Pellegrin [= Amoora cucullata Roxb.]

Avicennia alba Bl. [= A. offlcinalis L. var. alba Cl.]

Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh. var. acutissima Stapf & Mold.

Avicennia marina var. marina (Forsk.) Vierh.

Avicennia offiicinalis L.

 

 

 

B

 

 

Brownlowiia tersa (L.) Kosterm. [= B. lanceolata Benth.]

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Savigny [= Rhizophora gymnorrhiza L.; Bruguiera rheedii Blume; Bruguiera conjugata Merr.]

Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wt. & Am. ex Griff.

Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. [= B. gymnorrhiza Lamk.; B. eriopetala Wt. & Arn. ex Arn.]

Brugutera cylindrica (Linn.) Bl. [= B. caryophylloides Bl.]

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C

 

 

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Caesalpinia cristata

Cerbera manghas L. [= C. odollam Geartn.]

Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou [= C. roxburghiana Arn.]

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.E. Robin. [= C. candolleana Arn.]

Cynometra iripa

Cynometra ramiflora L.

 

 

 

D

 

 

Dalbergila spinosa Roxb.

Derris heterophylla

Derris scandens

Derris trifoliata Lour. [= D. uliginosa Benth.]

Dolichandrone spathacea (L. f.) K. Schum. [= D. rheedii Seem.]

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F

 

 

Excoecaria agallocha L.

Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl

Finlaysonia obovata Wall.

Flagellaria indica

 

 

 

H

 

 

Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham. (H. minor Roxb.)

Heritiera kanikensis Majumdar et Banerjee

Heritiera littorallis Dryand.

Hibiscus tiliaceous

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I

 

 

Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze

Ipomoea tuba (Schl.) G. Don

 

K

 

 

Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce [= K. rheedii Wt. & Arn.]

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L

 

 

Lumnitzera littorea (Jack.) Voigt [= L. coccinea Wight & Arn.]

Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.

 

 

 

M

 

 

Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC.

Myriostachya wightiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hook. f.

 

 

 

N

 

 

Nypa fruticans Wurumb.

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P

 

 

Pemphis acidula

Phoenix paludosa Roxb.

Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka [= Oryza coarctata Roxb.]

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R

 

 

Rhizophora apiculata Bl. [R. conjugata auct. non L.]

Rhizophora mucronata Lamk.

Rhizophora stylosa Griff. Local name: Samudra Rai (Or.).

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S

 

 

Sarcolobus carinatus Wall.

Sarcolobus globosus Wall.

Scirpus littoralis Schrad.

Sonneratia alba J. Sm.

Sonneratia apetala Buch.-Ham.

Sonneratia caseolarls (L.) Engl. (S. acida Linn, f.)

Sonneratio griffithii Kurz

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T

 

 

Thespesia populnea

Thespesia populneoides

Tylophora tenuis Bl.

 

 

 

U

 

 

Urochondra setulosa (Trin.) Hubb. [= Helechloa dura Boiss.]

 

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X

 

 

Xylocarpus granatum Koen. [= Carapa obovata Bl.; C. molluccensis Bedd. non Lamk.]

Xylocarpus mekongensis Pierre [= Carapa obovata Bl. var. gangeticus Prain]

Xylocarpus molluccensiis (Lamk.) M. Roem. [= Carapa molluccensis Lamk.]

 

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Acanthus illicifollus L.; A. neo-guineensis Engl.ACANTHACEAE


Local names: Hargoza (Hind.); Marandi (Mar.); Alsi, Akhi (Tel.); Sea Holly (Eng.).

Description: Erect or rarely scandent shrubs up to 2 m tall; stems several, stout, glabrous, base with stilt roots. Leaves glabrous, shining, 5-11 x 3-8 cm, various, usually ovate-oblong, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, pinnatifid or toothed, rigid, narrowed at base, obtusely spinous at apex, marginal teeth spinous, nerves strong. Flowers sessile, 3.5-4 cm long, in terminal or pseudo-axillary densely strobilate spike; bracts 1-2 cm long, acute, ovate, glabrous; calyx 4-segmented, lobes glabrous, shortly connate in two opposite pairs; corolla 5-seg-mented, 3-4 cm long, blue or bluish-violet, segments connate, 2-lip-ped, hairy outside; stamens with thick filaments, anthers densely bearded. Capsule ovoid-oblong, up to 3 cm long, compressed, apiculate, brown, shining.

Ecology: Gregarious along the tidal swamps in the sheltered mangrove areas, mostly as a secondary formation. Rarely seen along fresh water swamps in the coastal areas indicating its ecological amplitude and tolerance.

Flowering and Fruiting: April—August.

Distribution: Distributed all over the tidal forests in S. E. Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Bangla­desh, Burma, Malesia, Java, Indonesia and Australia.

Uses: Fruit pulp is used as a blood purifier and leaf paste in rheumatism.

Notes: The species is easily recognisable in the field from its holly-like leaves and attractive bluish flowers.

References:

Bremekamp, C.E.B. (1962). Densk. Bot. Arkiv. 20: 64.

Clarke, C.B. (1884). In: J.D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 4: 481.

Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 2: 427 (2nd repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Gamble, J.S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 2: 712. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Wight, R. (1846). Icon. t. 459.

 


Acanthus volubillis Wall . ACANTHACEAE

 

Description: Unarmed glabrous twining shrubs upto 8 m tall, stem-base supported by slender stilt-roots arising from basal nodes. Leaves 7—9 X 2.5—3 cm, oblong, ovate-oblong or elliptic, leathery, margins entire, cuneate at base, obtuse or mucronulate at apex. Flowers 1.9— 2.5 cm long, arranged in 10—12 cm long spikes; spikes simple or branched; bracts lanceolate, subtending the calyx, caducous; calyx 4-lobed, shortly cuneate below in two opposite pairs, outer sepals larger than the inner sepals; corolla white, 2-lipped, connate, 5-lobed, lower lip obovate, shortly 3-lobed; stamens 4, didynamous, anthers densely bearded. Capsule ca 2.5 cm long, ellipsoid, compres­sed, mucronate at apex.

Ecology: Rather sporadic and rare in tidal forests and swamps, growing in sheltered mangrove areas often climbing on mangrove tree species like Avicennia officinalis and Ceriops decandra.

Flowering and fruit­ing: April—August.

Distribution: In India the species is distributed only in the Sunderbans and Andaman Islands. Also occurs in Burma, Thai­land and Java. Its leaves are used for dressing boils and wounds.

Notes: A. volubilis is easily distinguished from A. ilicifolius by its twining habit, entire non-spinescent leaves and white flowers. It is recently collected from Sajnakhali in Sunderbans, West Bengal (Banerjee 13907, CAL.j in 1983 and appears to be a re­discovery of this rare species after a gap of 90 years from West Bengal Sunderbans.

References:

Clarke, C. B. (1884). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 4 : 481.

Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 2 : 242.

Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PL 2: 596. (repr. ed.). Botanical Sur­vey of India, Calcutta.

Wallich, N. (1830). PI. Asia. Rar. 2: 56, t. 122.

 

 

Cerbera manghas Linn. (C. odollam Geartn.)APOCYNACEAE

Local names: Dakur (Beng.), Pani ambo Utalam (Mal.), Kadama (Tam.), Sakunu (Mar.),

Small trees, 4—6 m high, stem soft, glabrous with milky juice. Leaves alternate, closely set or whorled at the apices of branchlets, 10—15 X 3—5 cm, ovate-oblong or oblanceolate, acuminate at apex, rounded at base. Flowers large, bracteate, 3—4 cm long, arranged in terminal paniculate cymes, funnel-shaped, white with yellow throat, turning purple or red on ageing. Fruits large, 7—9 X 4—6 cm, globose-ovoid or ellipsoid, drupaceous with fibrous pericarp; seeds 1—2, each 2—2.5 cm acro'ss, broad, compressed, fibrous.

Frequent along the intertidal banks of creeks and channels in mangrove forests; prefers and more frequent in situations inundated by more fresh water flow from the rivers and often in association with Heritiera fomes.

Flowering and fruiting from March—August.

In India the species occurs in all the east and west coast mangrove forests. Also extends into the mangrove forests in Sri Lanka, Malesia, China and Australia. Bark and sap (milky latex) are used as a purgative and for relief in rheumatism; a medicinal oil is extracted from the seeds.

References :

Bakhvizen van Den Brink, R.C. (Jr.) (1950). Blumea 6 : 386.

Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 2: 190. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 2 : 566. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hooker, J. D. (1882). Fl. Brit. India 3 : 638.

Wight, R. (1841). Icon. t. 441

 

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Finlaysonia obovata Wall.ASCLEPIADACEAE

 Local names: Dudi-lata (Beng.), Kansharinata (Or.).

A large spreading climber, stems glabrous with milky latex. Leaves opposite, 5—1&.5 X 3—6 cm, broadly obovate, leathery, rounded or emarginate at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers in axillary trichotomously branched cymes, 3—4 mm across, white or purple. Fruit a follicle, 7—9 X 4—5 cm, ovoid, divaricate, 2—3-winged, nar­rowed into a curved beak at apex; seeds 2.5—3 cm long, ovoid, flat­tened, with a tuft of silky long hairs.

Frequent in the intertidal areas of creeks and channels in the mangrove fringes and estuarine island-lets.

Flowering and fruiting from October—March.

Distributed in the Sunderbans and Mahanadi mangrove forests in India; also occurs in Bangladesh, Burma (Tenasserim), Malaya, Java and Malacca. The leaves are used for relief from asthma in Bengal and Orissa.

Notes : A monotypic genus (represented by a single species) easily distinguished in the field by its stout reddish-brown twining stems, foetid flowers, and divaricate winged follicles. The species is treated by some under a separate family Periplocaceae.

References :

Bakhvizen van Den Brink, R. C. (Jr.) (1950). Blumea 6: 369.

Hooker, J. D. (1885). Fl. Brit. India 4 : 7.

Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 2: 508 (repr. ed.). Botanical Sur­vey of India, Calcutta.

Wallich, N. (1831). Pl, Asiat. Rar. 2 : 48, t. 162.

 

 

Sarcolobus globosus Wall.ASCLEPIADACEAE

 Local names: Baoli-lata (Beng.), Pasurlata (Or.).

Twining shrubs with stout glabrous branches, root-stock thick, fleshy; roots thick. Leaves 3—6 X 2—4.5 cm, ovate or oblong, thick and fleshy, acute or obtuse at apex, rounded at base. Flowers small, starry, crowded, in axillary corymbose cymes, 2—3 mm across; corolla purplish, lobes pubescent inside. Follicles brown, 4—5 cm across, sub-globose; seeds many, flattened.

Frequent on muddy intertidal areas in mangrove forests often in association with and climbing on Phoenix paludosa.

Flowering and fruiting during June—September.

In India the species occurs in the Sunderbans, and Mahanadi mangrove forests as undergrowth; also reported from Nicobar Islands. Distributed in Mergui and Malacca. Its leaves and rhizomes are used in medicine.

Notes: Another closely allied species, viz., Sarcolobus carinatus Wall, also occurs in mangroves of India along the east coat. S. carinatus is readily recognised by its slender branches and yellow brown-dotted corolla of the flowers and is also seen distributed in the mangrove areas of the Sunderbans, Mahanadi and has been collected from the Coringa tidal forests in Andhra Pradesh; extending into the Andaman Islands and Mergui. It is not reported from West Coast mangroves in India.

References :

Hooker, J. D. (1876). Fl. Brit. India 4 : 27-28.

Prain, D. (1963). Bengal Pl. 2 : 514 (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. '

Rintz, R. E. (1980). Blumea 26(1) : 72.

Wallich, N. (1816). Asiat. Res. 12: 570, t. 4.

 

 

Nypa fruticans Wurumb.ARECACEAE

 

Local names: Gulga, Golpati, Galrea (Beng.), Gulga (Hind.), Nipamu (Tel.). Wafer Coconut (Eng.).

Gregarious, stemless palms, root-stock prostrate, thick, long, branched. Leaves arising from the root-stock, pinnatisect, 5—6 m long, leaflets linear-lanceolate, plicate, 1.5—2.5 m long, waxy-glau­cous underneath, with bifurcate, soft spine-like scales along the under surface of the midrib, petioles 1.5—2 m long, stout. Spafhes many; spadix terminal, branched, erect in flower, drooping in fruit. Flowers monoecious, male flowers minute, mixed with bracteoles, arranged in catkins on lateral branches of the spadix; female flowers larger, arranged in globose terminal heads. Fruits 12—16 X 6—10 cm ovoid or globose, syncarpous, with hexagonal 1-seeded carpels and pyramidal tips i pericarp fleshy, fibrous; endoacrp spongy.

Often forms gregarious colonies along the sheltered intertidal regions of creeks and channels in the mangrove forests.

Flowering and fruiting from May—September.

In India, the species is distri­buted only in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Sunderbans. Its doubtful occurrence in the Mahanadi mangrove areas in Orissa (Haines, 1961) has not been conflred inspite of repeated field surveys and the species apparently does not grow there. It is distri­buted in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Malesia, Philippines and extends upto Australia. Its leaves are extensively used in thatching roofs of huts and are reported to last for about 10 years. Its sap is extensively extracted for sugar, alcohol and vinegar industry. An over-exploited palm.

References :

Anon. (1948-1952). Wealth of India 1, 2 & 3. New Delhi.

Beccari, O. & Hooker, J. D. (1892). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 6 : 424.

Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih. & Orissa 3 : 825. (repr. ed.). Botani­cal Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hans Tralau (1964). 7n .- Kungl. Svenska Vetenska Psakademiens Handlingar. Fjarde Serien. Band 10 NR 1.

Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 2: 823-824. (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

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Phoenix paludosa Roxb. ARECACEAE

Local names; Hital, Hatal (Beng.), Hantal (Hind.), Hattal (Or.). Sea date-palm (Eng.).

Gregarious, bushy, soboliferous or dwarf stemless palms, upto 4 m high. Stem base 20—25 cm in diam, supported by spongy, needle-like, perforated breathing roots. Leaves forming a crown, 2—3.5 m long, imparipinnate with many ensiform segments, segments waxy, glabrous, midrib strong, ending into strong sharp spine at apex few pairs of lower segments modified into sharp spines. Inflores­cence a spadix; spadices thickly coriaceous, simple branched, arising in between leaves; spathes 20—30 cm long, brownish, enclosing the flowers. Flowers dioecious, yellowish-white, small, tri-merous; stamens 3 (in male flowers); carpels 3 (in female flowers). Fruits drupace­ous, 10—12 mm, oblong or ellipsoid, 1-seeded, shining black when ripe.

Common on elevated muddy swamps along lee-ward coastal areas. Often forms pure stands on elevated muddy intertidal estua-rine areas and extends upto 15 km inwards.

Flowering and fruit­ing from March—August.

In India it is distributed only in the east coast mangroves in the Sunderbans, Mahanadi and in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Extends into Thailand and Vietnam. Its leaves are extensively used for thatching, mats and wicker work and forms a good resources in cottage industry. Ripe fruits are not eaten for the blackish pulp is intolerable in taste (Haines).

References :

Anon. (1959). Proc. Mangr. Symp. Calcutta, pp. 1-136. Govern­ment of India Press, Faridabad.

Beccari, O. & Hooker, J. D. (1892). In: J. D. Hooker Fl. Brit. India 6 : 427.

Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot Bih. & Orissa 3: 924. (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 2 :825. (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey India, Calcutta.

 

 

Avicennia alba Bl. (A. offlcinaliti Linn. car. alba Cl.)AVICENNIACEAE

Local names: Dulia baen (Beng.), Bain (Hind.), Kala baen (Or.), Tivar (Mar.), Gundu mada, Vilava mada (Tel.).

Small trees, upto 5 m tall, much branched, Hark brownish-black, lenticelled, stem-base without prominent buttresses; pneuma-tophores many, spongy, narrowly pointed, straight or hooked, 8—15 cm long, pencil thick. Leaves 8—13 X 2—3.5 cm, lanceolate, pale-green above, silvery papillose below, acute at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers in axillary or terminal spikes, yellow, small, fragrant. Capsules 3—4 cm long, tomentellous, ellipsoid, narrowly acuminate and curved at apex into a short beak. Seeds often germinate while attached to the mother tree (incipiently viviparous).

Frequent in the infertidal areas of riverine and estuarine man­grove swamps often forming a second-line-zone behind Avicennia marina communities; sporadic in sheltered mangrove forests on newly formed mud banks.

Flowering and fruiting from June— August.

In India the species occurs in mangrove forests along the east and west coasts from Sunderbans upto Maharashtra. It is however not recorded from Saurashtra and Kutch areas. Distributed in Sri Lanka, Burma, Malesia, Java, Philippines, China and N. Australia. The species of Avicennia have been extensively over-exploited for fuel wood. Its leaves form a good source for fodder and fish-food and its flowers are a rich source of honey and bee-wax.

Notes : The species is readily identified from the other two in India by its lanceolate-acute leaves and narrow-ellipsoid fruits.

References :

Anon. (1959). Proc. Mangr. Symp. Calcutta, pp. 1-136. Govern­ment of India Press, Faridabad.

Bole, P. V. & Pathak, J. M. (1988). Fl. Saurashtra, pt 2 197 Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 2 : 517 (2nd repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

Avicennia marina var. marina (Forsk.) Vierh.AVICENNIACEAE

Local names: Boro baen, Sada baen (Bcng.), Peara bain (Or.), Tivar (Saurash.), Venkandan (Tarn.), Mada (Tel.).

Shrubs or small bushy trees, evergreen, upto 4 m high; bark smooth, yellowish-brown, lenticellate in younger parts. Leaves 3—6 X 2—2.5 cm, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-ovate, glabrous, pale green above, closely tawny-tomentose beneath, acute at apex, rounded or tapering towards base; petioles 3—o mm long, glabrous. Flowers 2—4 mm across, sessile, pale-yellow, in condensed terminal cymes; calyx deeply lobed, hairy tomentose; corolla lobes ovate-acute; slamens included; ovary villous, style short, stigmas 2. Capsules 12—15 mm long, ovoid, apiculate, greyish-tomentose, compressed, viviparous.

Gregarious forming pure stands in the intertidal areas in the estuarine mangrove swamps. It often grows as a pioneer species towards sea-ward areas subjected to high wave action, high salinity and silt deposition and stabilizes intertidal land mass.

Flowering and fruiting from April—August.

Distributed in the mangrove forests to down southwards from the Sunderbans along the east coast and along the west coast up to Saurashtra. Extends from E. Africa to Australia through Egypt, Arabia, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, S. E. Asia and China- Extensively exploited for fuel wood and fodder; decomposed leaves constitute fish-food, and flowers an excellent source of honey and bee-wax.

Notes: A. marina var. marina can be distinguished from the other species of Avicennia in India by its elliptic-oblong or elliptic-ovate leaves and apiculate fruits.

References :

Bole, P. V. & Pathak, M. J. (1988). Fl. Saurashtra, pi. 2: 197-198. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 2 : 773-774. (2nd repr. ed.)' Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Moldenke, H. N. (1960). Phytologia 1 : 225.

 

 

Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh. var. acutissima Stapf & Mold.AVICENNIACEAE

Local names: Chota bani (Or.), Tivar (Mar. & Saurash.).

Shrubs, 5—10 m tall, bushy; stems glabrous, yellowish-white. Leaves 6—7.5 X 2.5—3 cm, elliptic, shining above, white pulverulent beneath, sharply acuminate at apex, cuneate at base, sessile or very shortly petiolate (1—3 mm). Flowers 2—3 mm across, yellow, in terminal cymes. Capsules ovoid, apiculate at apex.

Frequent on elevated tidal flats.

Flowering and fruiting during May—July.

The variety is reported from Salsette island and ad joinings of Bombay, Saurashtra areas, in western India and extends into the Sind in Pakistan and Egypt. Some specimens collected from the Barua estuarine area in Orissa resemble this but require critical taxonomic study. Used for fuel and fodder purpose.

Notes: This taxon differs from var. marina in . its sessile and sharply acuminate leaves.

References :

Bole, P. V. & Pathak, M. J. (1988). Fl. Saurashtra, Pl. 2: 197-198. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Moldenke, H. N. (1960). Phytologia 7 : 225.

 

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Avicennia offiicinalis Linn.AVICENNIACEAE

Local names: Kalo baen (Beng.), Bain (Hind.), Kala bani, Dhala baen (Or.), Orei (Mal.), Tivar (Mar.), Tavariya, Tivar (Saur.). Upattha (Tarn.), Nallamada (Tel.). While mangrove (Eng.).

Moderate sized trees, upto 20 m high, stem upto 100 cm in diam at base, bark smooth, whitish-grey lenticellate, peeling off papery; wood brown or grey, hard. Pneumatophores many, simple or forked, spongy, often hooked at apices. Leaves 6—10 X 3—6 cm, broadly ovate-oblong or obovate, coriaceous obtuse at apex, tapering at base, glabrous, shining above, minutely and densely brownish-pubescent beneath. Flowers yellow, small, 5—6 mm, in trichotomous sessile heads; ovary shortly hairy. Capsules 2.5—4 X 1.5—2 cm, ovoid, compressed, beaked at apex; seeds dark-green, shining, pubescent on one side, often germinating on the trees.

Sporadic in the inner mangrove areas; never forms pure stands. The leaves become black on drying.

Flowering and fruiting from June—August.

In India the species occurs in the mangrove areas and tidal creeks along both the coasts and in the Bay islands. Also distributed in Burma, Sri Lanka, Malesia, Java, China and in the islands of Pacific and Indian Oceans. The wood is hard, heavy and gives much heat for which it is extensively felled for fuel wood purpose; also used for building houses and boats. Its leaves are used as fodder to increase milk in cattle and the dry leaves are smoked by the local people in Kutch and Saurashtra for relief from asthama and the plant is used to cure leprosy. It;s bark yields a dye and ash from its wood is used for washing and reportedly removes stains and blotches. The flowers are a rich source of honey. The kernel of the fruit is reportedly edible and the bark resin considered medicinal.

Notes: A. officinalis is readily recognised from the other Indian Avicennias by the large sized trees and obovate or ovate-oblong leaves which turn black on drying and almond-shaped fruits.

References :

Anon. (1959). Proc. Mangr. Symp. Calcutta, pp. 1-136. Govern­ment of India Press, Faridabad.

 

 

Dolichandrone spathacea (Linn, f.) K. Schum. (D. rheedii Seem.) BIGNONIACEAE

Local names: Gouru singha (Beng. & Or.), Nir pongiliun (Mal.), Vilpadri (Tarn.)

Trees, upto 20 m tall, stem about 30 cm in diam at base, fluted, bark white or grey, wood soft. Leaves imparipinnate, leaf­lets 5—9, acuminate-rhomboid, 5—15 X 4—6 cm, thin, glabrous above, hairy below, caudate-acuminate at apex, unequal sided at base. Flow­ers in terminal racemes of 3—6 large, 10—16 cm wide, white, salver-shaped; calyx conical, beaked, spathaceous, corolla 5-lobed; stamens included in the corolla tube; style exerted. Fruits 30—60 cm long, straight or twisted, capsule with flattened pseudoseptum seeds grey, rectangular, in many rows, with corky wings.

The species is rather sporadic and confined to elevated central areas in mangrove forests. It is usually associated with Cerbera manghas, Sonneratia caseolaris and Heritiera fames, which prefer areas inundated more with riverine water. Flowering and fruiting from April—August. In India this species occurs in the man­grove swamps along the Malabar coast in Kerala, Sunderbans in West Bengal and Mahanadi tidal forests in Orissa and Andaman Islands. Distributed in tropical S.E. Asia, extending through Malesia. New Guinea, Micronesia and New Caledonia, but is not reported from Australia and Polynesian islands in the Pacific. The wood is used for charcoal making and the species can be grown along river banks and coastal areas to check erosion and for its beautiful white flowers. Its wood being soft can be used for making match-sticks and toys.

Notes : Its flowers open during night and usually fall off at sun­rise.

References:

Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 2 : 700 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih. & Orissa 2 : 690 (repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

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Lumnitzera littorea (Jack.) Voigt (L. coccinea Wt. & Arn.) COMBRETACEAE

Trees, 8—15 m tall with knee-bent aerial roots from the base of the stem. Leaves 1.5—4.5 X 0.8—1.5 cm, ovate or ovate-elliptic, coriaceous, emarginate at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 10—12 mm long, red, shortly pedicelled, in terminal racemes. Fruits 9—12 mm long, ellipsoid-oblong, longitudinally ribbed.

Rather uncommon and is mostly restricted to elevated interior areas of mangrove forests.

Flowering and fruiting during May— July.

The species is distributed in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in India and extends into Burma, Malesia, N. Australia and Polene-sian mangroves. Its reported occurrence in the tidal marshes at Bombay and Salsette Islands along the Konkan Coast is doubtful. The species is used for the same purposes as those of L. racemosa.

Notes: The species is easily distinguished from L. racemosa by its red-flowered racemes.

References :

Clarke, C. B. (1878). In: J. D Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 452.

Excell, A. W. (1954). In : C. G. G. J. van Sleenis, Fl. Malesiana 4 : 586.

Mahabale, T. S. (1987). In: K. K. Chaudhari (ed.). Botany and Flora of Maharashtra. Maharashtra State Gazetters, Pi. 4 : 450.

Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 168.

Sahni, K. C. (1959). In: Proc Mang. Symp., Calcutta, p. 117. Government of India Press, Faridabad.

 

 

Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.

Local names: Kripa (Beng.), Tunda (Or.), Kadivi, Thandara (Tel.).

COMBRETACEAE Tipparathai (Tarn.),

Large shrubs or small trees upto 8 m tall, glabrous; bark brown­ish, lenticellate. Leaves sessile, thick, crowded at branch endings, 4—8 X 1.5—3.5 cm, oblanceolate or obovate, entire, emarginate at apex, tapering at base. Flowers sessile, in short, lax, axillary spikes. 9—11 mm long, white; calyx-tube produced above the ovary; petals 5; stamens 10 or rarely fewer; ovary 1-celled, inferior. Fruits 8—10 X 4—6 mm, ellipsoid, woo'dy, crowned with persistent calyx-lobes, 1-seeded.

Frequent in the muddy or sandy elevated fringe areas in the estuarine and back water mangroves, often in association with Ceriops tagal or forming pure stands.

Flowering and fruiting during the period from April—July.

In India, this species occurs in the mangrove swamps along both the coasts from Sunderbans down­wards and upto Maharashtra, but is not reported from Kutch and Saurashtra areas. It occurs in the tidal forests in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Its geographical distribution extends from tropical E. Africa to N. Australia and Polynesia through India, Sri Lanka and S. E. Asia. Its wood is used fo|r fuel purpose and for extracting tanning.

6-7.

Notes : Lumnit-era racemosa is easily identified in the field from its reddish-brown bark of the stem, thick oblanceolate or obovate leaves crowding at ends of branch-lets, white flowers and woody compressed fruits. Another closely allied species, L. littorea (Jacq.) Voigt reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, does not occur in the mainland mangroves in India.

References :

Clarke, C. B. (1878). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 452.

Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1: 514. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Excell, A. W. (1954). In: C. G. G. J. van Steenis. Fl. Malesiana 4: 588.

 

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Excoecaria agallocha Linn.EUPHORBIACEAE

Local names: Goan (Beng.). Gangwa (Hind.), Komatti (Mal.), Geva (Mar.), Gango (Or.), Tilai (Tarn.), Tilla (Tel.). Blinding tree (Eng.)

Evergreen trees or large shrubs, often 15 m tall, trunk upto 70 cm in diam at base, bark greyish, lenticelled, wood soft, light; plant parts with milky sap; root-system without a prominent main root, many laterally spreading, superficial, snake-like roots producing elbo-shaped pegs from supraterranean bends. Leaves 3—8 X 1.5—3 cm, ovate, ovate-elliptic or ovate-oblong, greenish turning red before shed­ding, acute or obtuse at apex, narrowed at base. Flowers unisexual, fragrant; male flowers 2—3 mm, yellow, in axillary catkin-like spikes; female flowers 2.5—3.5 mm, pedicellate, in axillary few-flower­ed racemes. Capsules 1—1.5 cm across, depressed-globose, 3-lobed, dehiscent; seeds sub-globose or 3-gonus.

Common in the intertidal forest, often extending into muddy seashore; in association with Avicennia officinalis.

Flowering and fruiting from March—July.

The species occurs along both the coasts from Sunderbans to south of Narmada estuary in the tidal swamps and in the Bay Islands. Distributed in the mangrove forests in India, Sri Lanka, Burma, tropical S. E. Asia, N. Australia and New Caledonia. Its wood is used in making paper pulp for boards and in soft-wood industry. The milky juice of the plant is highly acrid and produces blisters on skin and causes blindness.

Notes: The species is readily known in the field from its light green leaves turning reddish on ageing, cat-tail like male inflorescences and above all from the poisonous milky juice of the plant which readily exudes on injuring any plant part.

References :

Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 3 : 122 Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

(2nd repr. ed.).

Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 2 : 940 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Hooker, J. D. (1878). Fl. Brit. India 5 : 472.

Wight, R. (1852). Ic. t. 1865B.

 

 

Cynometra ramiflora Linn. FABACEAE 

Local name : Shingara (Beng. & Or.)

Trees, 6—10 m tall. Leaves 2-jugate or 1-jugate, leaflets 2—4.5 cm, variable in shape, usually ovate-oblong or suB-orbicular, oblique at base, emarginate at apex. Flowers 4—6 mm across, purplish, in condensed axillary racemes and on old exfoliate branches. Pods 4— 8 in a raceme, each 1.5—2.5 cm long, obliquely elliptic, wrinkled, 1-seeded; seeds flat, smooth.

Frequent along intertidal areas in Ihe mangrove forests of the Sunderbans, Mahanadi in association with Heritiera fames and in Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India.

Flowers and fruits from September—February. Distributed in Malesia, Sri Lanka, Philip­pines and N. Australia. Its wood is used for timber and fuel pur­poses and the seeds are roasted and eaten like ground-nuts.

Notes : The species is distinguished in the field from the flowering racemes arising on old leafless stems and from the curiously wrinkled pods (fruits).

References :

1. Baker, J. G. (1978). In: J. D. Hooker, Ft. Brit. India 2 : 267.

2. Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 1 : 318. (repr. ed.). Botanical Sur­vey of India, Calcutta.

3. van Meeuwen, M. S. K. (1970) Blumea 18 : 29.

4. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl Andaman Islands, p. 153.

5. Santapau, H. & A. N. Henry (1973). Diet. Fl. Pi. India, p. 49. CSIR, New Delhi.

 

 

Dalbergila spinosa Roxb.FABACEAE

Local names: Chulia kanta, Kanta gucha (Beng.), Chila kanta (Or.), Chillingi (Tel.).

Shrubs or small trees, 3—6 m tall, branches stiff and horizontal, ending in sharp spines. Leaves 6—9 cm long, crowded at nodes of the spinous branchlets; leaf-lets 9 X 11, alternate, each 1—2 X 0.5— 1 cm, elliptic-ovate, obtuse or emafginate at apex, cuneate aft base. Flowers purplish-white in short dense corymbose clusters in the leaf axils. Pods flat, 2.5—3 cm long, kidney shaped, brownish, 2-seeded.

The species is more common in the intertidal mangrove forests along the east coast.

Flowering and fruiting during May— November.

Cooke (1958) reported it from Konkan region on the authority of Talbot but remarked that he had not seen any speci­mens from throughout Bombay Presidency. The species certainly does not occur in the tidal forests of Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch region. It is distributed in India, Bangladesh, Burma and Malay­sia. The leaves are used as fodder for cattle and the woody branches as fuel.

Notes: The species is identified in the field from its branchlets ending into sharp spines and kidney shaped pods.

References :

Baker, J. G. (1876). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 238.

Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : 426 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1: 269 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 1 : 294 (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Thothathri, K. (1987). Tax. Rev. Tribe Dalbergieae Ind. Suti-cont., p. 192-193. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

Derris trifolliata Lour. (D. uliginosa Benth.) FABACEAE

Local names : Kali lata, Pani lata (Beng)

Large woody climbing shrubs, branches wiry, strong, lenticellate. Leaves imparipinnate, 6—15 cm long; leaflets 5—10 X 2—3.5 cm, ovate-oblong, acute at apex, rounded at base, shining. Flowers white, 4—6 cm across, in axillary racemes. Pods 3—4 cm, flat, nar­rowly winged along the suture, 1-seeded.

Common in the intertidal forests along the Indian Peninsula and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Flowering and fruiting during June —September.

Distributed from Madagascar to Polynesia through India, Sri Lanka, China, Malesia and S. Australia. The stems and long wiry branches yield strong fibre and are used as ropes. The seeds are used as fish poison.

Notes : The species can be identified by its one-seeded papery pods.

References :

Baker, J. G. (1878). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 241.

Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay \ : 431 (2nd repr. ed.)-Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1 : 273 (2nd repr. ed.)-Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Thothathri, K. (1982). In.- Fasc. Fl. India 8: 30. Botanical Survey of Indta, Howrah.

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Intsto bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze FABACEAE

Local names: Mahasita, Hinga, Somdal (Beng.).

Trees, 10—15 m tall. Leaves mostly bijugate, leaf-lets some­times upto 6, each 8—13 X 4—9 cm, ovate-elliptic, inequilateral, subacute or retuse at apex, obliquely rounded at base. Flowers in terminal corymbs, 3—4 cm across deep purple with a single clawed petal; stamens 3; ovary with sub-truncate stigma. Pods 15—20 X 4—5 cm, obliquely oblong, woody, flattened, septate between the seeds. Seeds 3—8, orbicular, compressed with reddish-brown aril.

Frequent in the tidal forests in areas specially under fresh water flow. Flowering and fruiting from October—March. In India the species occurs only in the Sunderbans, Mahanadi and Andaman Islands. Distributed in Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Malesia, Seychelles and Polynesian Islands. The wood is hard and used for house building.

Notes: The tree can b'e identified by its bijugate leaves, single petal-lobe and flat woody pods. ,

References :

1. Baker, J. G. (1878). In: 3. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 274.

2. de Wit, H. C. D. (1941)- Bull. Jard. Buitz. Ser. 3: 17, 139.

3. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 154.

 

 

Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC.FABACEAE

Local names: Alshi lata (Beng.), Kiwach (Hind.), Soui nata (Or.), Poonai kali (Tarn.).

Extensively spreading stout woody climbers. Leaves 10—20 cm long; petioles 8—12 cm long; leaflets 8—10 X 4—7 cm, ovate-ellip­tic, unequal-sided, glabrous, acute at apex, rounded at base. Flow­ers 4—6.5 cm across, yellow, drooping in axillary umbelliform race­mes on 15—20 cm long woody peduncles. Pods 8—15 cm, flatten­ed, broadly winged on both the sutures, clothed with golden-brown irritant bristles. Seeds 2—4, compressed with hilum extend­ing more than half the seed.

Frequent along the intertidal regions of creeks and channels in the mangrove forests and at times in sandy coastal areas. Flowering and fruiting during August—December. In India the species is distributed in the mangrove forests of the Sunderbans, Mahaiiadi delta and in back-water tidal forests along the Malabar coast in Kerala and Andaman islands. Its occurrence in Konkan in Maha-rashtra tidal forests is doubtful (Cooke, 1958). It is distributed in the mangrove forests in India, Sri Lanka, extending into Malesia, Java and Philippines. Its seeds are considered medicinal and rich in protein.

Notes : The species is at once recognised in the field by its flatten­ed pods covered with golden-brown bristly hairs which cause immense irritation and itching on contact.

References :

1. Baker, J. G. (1876). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 186.

2. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : 389 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

3. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1 : 251 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Prain, D. (1963). Bengal Pi. 1 : 285 (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

5. Wilmot-Dear, C. M. (1987). Kew Bull. 42(1) : 38.

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Aglaia cucullata {Roxb.) Pellegrin (Amoora cucullata Roxb.) MELIACEAE

Local names: Amur, Latmi (Beng.), Angar (Or.)-

Medium sized trees, 10 m tall, with numerous vertical blind root-suckers or woody pneumatophores. Leaves large, 30—40 cm long, imparipinnately compound, glabrous, leaflets 7—11, each 9—19 X 4—6 cm, elliptic-oblong, unequal-sided, obtuse at apex, oblique at base, terminal leaflet forming a cup at base. Flowers unisexual, 3—4 mm across, yellow, in axillary panicles; male inflorescence 20—30 cm long, few-flowered; female inflorescence 6<—15 cm long, few-flowered; calyx 3-lobed, lepidote, minutely ciliate; petals 3, elliptic, concave; staminal tube petuliferous, obovoid; anthers 6. Fruits 8—12 cm, globose, trilocular capsules; seeds 3, covered with fleshy oiange aril.

Frequent in the intertidal mangrove areas often in association with Heritiera fomes, Cynometra ramiftora and Xylocarpus mekon-gensis. Flowering and fruiting almost throughout the year. The species occurs in Sunderbans, Mahanadi deltaic forests and in Andaman Islands. Distributed in Burma and Borneo. Its wood is hard and is used for making toys and cigar pipes.

Notes : The vertical blind root-sit kers (woody pneumatophores) and the terminal leaflet with a cupular base readly help in iden­tification of the species in the field.

References :

1. Hiern, W. P. (1875). In .- J. D- Hooker, Fl. Brit. India I : 560.

2. Pennington, J. D. & B. T. Styles (1975). Blumea 22(3) : 481.

3. Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PL 1 : 221 (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

Xylocarpus granatum Koen. (Carapa obovata Bl.; C. molluccensis Bedd. non Lamk.) MELIACEAE

Local names: Dhundul, Pohar (Beng.), Pussur (Hind.), Pitamari (Or.), Somunthiri (Tarn.), Chenuga (Tel).

Trees, upto 20 m fall, trunk ca 70 cm in diam at base, buttress­ed; bark yellowish-white, peeling off as papery flakes. Leaves uniju-gafe or bijugate; leaflets 6—10 X 3.5 cm, obovate, entire, rounded at apex, tapering at base. Flowers 5—7 mm across, white with a red­dish gland within, in axillary thyrses; calyx 4-lobed; petals 4, free. Fruits large, 30—40 cm across, globose, septafragal capsules, split­ting tardily into 4 valves. Seeds 10—15 in number, pyramid shaped with a corky testa.

Common on sheltered intertidal banks in the mangrove forests in association with Rhizophora, Kandelia candel and Sonneratia ctpetala. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. In India the species occurs in the tidal forests along the east and west coastal areas upto Maharashtra and in Andaman Islands. Distributed in the tropical tidal forests from Africa to N. Australia through India, Sri Lanka and Malayan archipelago. Its timber is used for making furniture, agricultural implements and yields tannin, seed oil is used for illumi­nation and grooming hairs, seed-paste is used for relief of breast tumor.

Notes : X. granatum can be distinguished from the other two species of Xylocarpus by its buttressed stem, absence of pneumatopho-res, obovate leaves and large globose fruits with pyramidal seeds.

References:

1. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1: 226 (2nd repr. ed-)-Botanical Survey of India. Calcutta

2. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres Madras 1 : 132 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

3. Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih & Orissa 1 : 187 (repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Hiern, W. P. (1875). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1 : 561.

5. Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 1 : 222 (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

Xylocarpus mekongensis Pierre (Carapa obovata Bl. var. gangeticus Prain) Local name: Pitamari (Beng.).

MELIACEAE

Trees, uplo 15 m tall, trunk ca 50 cm in diam at base; bark reddish-brown, peeling off into thick flakes, stem-base with woody pneumatophores or blind root-suckers. Leaves paripinnate, mostly bi jugate; leaflets 2—4-paired, each 9—18 X 4—7 cm, elliptic-oblong, obtuse at both ends. Flowers white, in axillary panicles. Fruits 8—12 cm across, brown, globose, capsular. Seeds tetrahedral.

Sporadic in the interior elevated areas of mangrove forests in association with Heritiera fames and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Flow­ering and fruiting during April—July. Distributed in the Sunder-bans, Mahanadi and Andamans and extends into Malesia. Its wood is used for furniture making and for extracting tannin.

Notes : X. mekongensis differs from A', granatum in the absence but­tressed trunk, and in having blind root-suckers, elliptic-oblong leaflets and smaller fruits by which it is easily identified in the field.

References :

1. Harms, H. (1940). In .- A. Engler & K. Prantle, Pflanz. Fam. ed, 2, 19 bi : 82.

2. Watson, J. G. (1928). Mal. For. Rec. 6.

 

 

Xylocarpus molluccensiis (Lamk.) M. Roem.(Carapa molluccensis Lamk.) Local names : Ptakura (Beng.).

MELIACEAE

Large trees, up to 20 m tall, trunk ca 60 cm in diam at base, buttressed; bark red with thick flakes; wood red in colour; pneuma-lophores woody. Leaflets 7—12 X 3—6 cm, ovate, acute at apex, oblique at base. Flowers 2—3 cm across, white with red glands inside; staminal teeth obscure, anthers exceeding the teeth; stigma cup-shaped. Fruits 10—15 cm across, globose.

Rather uncommon and grows on elevated fresh water inundated river banks in association with Heritiera littoralis. Flowering and fruiting from June—September. Reported only in the Mahaiiadi deltaic mangroves and in Andamans (in India). Distributed from tropical Africa to N. Australia through India and Malesia. Its wood is durable and finds application for similar uses as of the other two species of Ihe genus.

Notes : The species is readily recognised from X. mekongensis by its buttressed, dark red stem with thick peels of bark, ovate leaflets and obscure staminal teeth.

References :

1. Adelbert, A. G. L. (1948). Blumea 6(1) : 314.

2. Hiern, W. P. (1875). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India I : 561.

3. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 118.

4. Watson, J. G. (1928). Mal. For.Rec. 6.

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Aegiceras cornliculatum (Linn.) Blanco (Rhizophora corniculata Linn.; A. majus Gaertn.)MYRSINACEAE

Local names : Khalsi (Beng.), Halsi (Hind.), Teluni (Or.), Kajla (Mar.), Narikandam (Tarn.), Dudumara, Guggilam (Tel.)

Small trees, upto 6 m tall, stem about 20 cm in diam at base, much branched, supported by many slender broom like stilt-roots. Leaves 4—8 X 2—4 cm, ovate-oblong or obovate, coriaceous, entire, retuse at. apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 1.5—2 cm long, white, fragrant, in terminal, axillary or leaf-opposed umbels. Fruits 6—8 cm long, terete, curved or falcate, tapering to a pointed apex. Hypocotyle 3—4 cm long, curved and pointed.

Common along the sheltered intertidal banks of creeks and channels in mangrove forests. The species is often found in associa­tion with species of Rhizophora and Ceriops decandra. Flowering and fruiting during April—September. In India it occurs in the mangrove areas along both the coasts from Saurashtra and Kutch to Sunderbans and in the Bay Islands. A widely distributed species occuring in almost all mangrove areas in the tropics and subtropics of old world and new world countries. The species forms a poten­tial source for high quality honey and bee-wax from its flowers and the wood is used for building huts and for fuel.

Notes : The species with its foliage, fragrant white flowers and curi­ous crescent-shaped yellow fruits in bunches looks elegant and is at once identifiable in the field.

References :

1. Bole, P. V. & J. M. Pathak (1988). Fl. Saurashtra 2: 46. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

2. Clarke, C. B. (1882). In : J. D. Hooker, FL Brit. India 3 : 533.

3. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 2 : 147. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 2 : 532. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

5. Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih. & Orissa 2 : 535. (repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

6. Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 2: 114.

 

 

Aegialitis rotundlfolia Roxb. PLUMBAGINACEAE 

 

Local names : Safari (Beng.), Baria ruar (Or.).

Shrubs or small trees upto 7 m tall, stem base about 20 cm in diam, swollen and with numerous stilt roots; stems straight with leaf-scars, branching only towards apex. Leaves alternate, 2.5 — 9 X 3 — 9 cm, rounded or broadly ovate or sub-orbicular, thickly leathery, shining, obtuse or shortly apiculate at apex, abruptly cuneate at base, petiole 4 — 8.5 cm long, thick, dilated at base clasping the stem, glandular. Flowers 15 — 20 mm long, white, arranged in leafy-pani­cles; calyx 5-lobed, tubular; corolla white, united at base forming a short tube with staminal bases; stamens 5, Fruits capsular, 8 — 10 cm long, linear, 5-ribbed, slightly curved, 1-seeded, dehiscing from top along the ribs, hypocotyle about 6 cm long, white, with plumu-lar cap and a long funiculus.

Gregarious along estuarine tidal swamps and muddy sea-shores. Flowering and fruiting from February — June. In India it is found in the tidal forests in the Sunderbans, Mahanadi and Andaman-Nicobar Islands. Distributed in Burma and Malesian Islands. The species is exploited for its pole-like stems for building huts and small houses and for extracting salts from the ash of its burnt wood and leaves.

Notes : A. rotundifolla is distinguished by ifs sub-orbicular or round­ed leaves with stem-clasping pelioles, straight unbranched coni­cal based stems.

References :

1. Clarke, C. B. (1882). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 3: 479.

2. Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih. & Orissa 2 : 529 (repr. ed.). Bola-nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

3. Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 1 : 470. (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India Calcutta.

4. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 193.

5. Roxburgh, W. (1832). Fl. Indica 2: 111.

6. van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (1949). In : C. G. G. J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 4 : 108.

 

 

Myriostachya wightiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hook. f. Local names: Mullhaghas (Beng.), Pani ghas (Or.).

POACEAE

Gregarious perennial grass, culms 2—3 m tall, densely tufted from a sheathing root-stock with long, flexible branching fibrous roots. Leaves linear, smooth, acuminate. Spikelets pedicellate, 6— 12-flowered, racemose on short branchlets of a narrowed panicle. Glumes 1 & 2 unequal, 1-nerved, keeled with a long awn; lodicules minute, retuse; stamens 3. Grain obliquely ovoid with a large scutellum.

Abundant often as a pioneer along the muddy banks of creeks and channels in the intertidal regions of mangrove swamps. Flower­ing and fruiting during July—August. Distributed in the east coasl mangroves of Indian peninsula and in Andaman Islands, extending into Burma, Malesia and Vietnam. It is a potential source of good fodder and thatching material and ils long wiry flexible roots are used for cordage.

Notes.- M. wightiana is distinguished from its pedicillate spikelets with long awns.

References :

1. Bor, N. L. (I960). Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan pp. 1-607.

2. Hooker, J. D. (1897), Fl. Brit. Brit. India 1 : 327.

3. Rao, T. A. & L. K. Banerjee (1970). Journ. Bombay Nat Hist Soc. 66(3): 659.

 

 

Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka (Oryza coarctata Roxb.) POACEAE

Local names: Dhani Ghas (Beng. & Or.), Harakata (Beng.).

Perennial grass, 1—2 m tall, rhizome thick, creeping. Leaves linear, coriaceous with spinulose margins. Panicles spiciform, branched, each with a few flowers; glumes 1 and 2 setaceous, glume 3 smooth, dorsally winged into an awn; lodicules subquadrate, mem­branous.

Common on newly formed alluvial mud flats in the intertidal regions of mangroves. Flowering and fruiting from May—August. Distributed in the east and west coast mangroves of the Indian peninsula. Also reported from Burma and Malesia. The grass is used as fodder and for paper pulp making and thatching.

References :

1. Bor, N. L. (1960). Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakis* tan, p. 604.

2. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 3 : 565 (2nd repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

3. Fischer, C. E. C. (1967). In: J. S. Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 3: 1276. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Hooker, J. D. (1897). Fl. Brit. India 7 : 93.

5. Prain, D. (1963). Bengal PI. 2: 892. (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

6. Roxburgh, W. (1832). Fl. Indica 2 : 206.

 

 

Urochondra setulosa (Trin.) Hubb. (Helechloa dura Boiss.) POACEAE

Stout perennial grass, branches minutely velvety pubescent, asc­ending, 15—25 cm long. Leaves 7.5—15 cm long, involute, terete, ending in sharp spiny tips; shealhs short; ligule a narrow line of hairs. Inflorescence a spike-like panicle, uplo 10 cm long, solitary. Spikelets densely imbricate, about 2.5 mm long; glumes 3, all 1-nerved and with ciliate keels; lower involucral glume about 1.5 mm long, linear-oblanceolate, spiculate; floral glume about 2.5 mm long, elliptic-oblong, obtuse; palea about 2 mm long, 2-fld, with ciliate lobes; stamens usually 2, rarely 3, filaments very long; anthers short.

Frequent on dry elevated salt pans. Flowering in December. The species is reported only from Saurashtra and Gujarat areas in India extending westwards into West Asia.

Notes: The species is readily distinguished from its terete, involute leaves with spine-like pointed tips.

References :

1. Bole, P. V. & J. M. Pathak (1988). Fl. Saurashtra 3: 482.

2. Bor, N. L. (1960). Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakis­tan, p. 634.

3. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 3: 532. (2nd repr. ed.). Bolanical Survey of India, Calcutta (as Helechloa dura).

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Acrostichum aureum Linn. PTERIDACEAE

Erect terrestrial fern, 1—1.5 m tail; stipes woody, glabroush, arising from a stout woody rhizome; fronds unipinnate; pinnae 8—14, alternate, linear-oblong, rounded or retusely mucronate at apex, cuneate at base, lower sterile, upper ruddy-brown soriferous. Sori densely aggregated along the undersurface, non-indusiate.

Common in elevated disturbed areas in mangrove forests. Sori are formed during June—October. In India this species occurs in a disjunct manner in Sunderbans and Mahanadi estuarine forests along the east coast, in Kerala along west coast and in Andaman & Nicobar islands. Widely distributed in .tropical coasts of the world. The fronds are used for thatching.

Notes: This is the only terrestrial fern that grows in mangrove situations.

References :

1. Beddome, R. H. (1883). Handbook to the Ferns of British India, Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, p. 440.

2. Dixit, R. D. & J. N. Vohra (1984). A Dictionary of Pteridophy-tes of India, p. 1. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah,

 

 

Brugutera cylindrica (Linn.) Bl. (B. caryophylloides Bl.) RHIZOPHORACEAE

Local names: Sona champa, Thushia (Beng.), Bokul (Or.), Vurudu(Tel.).

Trees upto 20 m tall, stem-base buttressed, producing oval shaped knee-bent roots; young twigs and bark bronze coloured with many stipular scars. Leaves 8—15 X 2—6 cm, oblanceolate, acute at apex, cuneate at base; petioles green. Flowers 1—1.5 cm long, white, 3, in axillary pedunculate cymes; calyx-tube smooth, cup-shaped with 8—10 reflexed lobes; petals bilobed with a bristle in the sinus, each lobe with 3 apical cilia, margins hairy. Hypocotyle 10— 14 cm, cylindric, obscurely ribbed and slightly curved towards apex.

Common along estuarine mouths in the mangrove forests, often growing immediately behind Avicennia marina communities. Occa­sionally in pure stands or in association with Bruguiera parviflora in sheltered estuarine parts of mangroves. Flowering and fruiting from May—August. It is distributed in the mangrove areas of Malabar (west coast) and in the east coast of Indian peninsula and in Anda­man islands, extending into Sri Lanka, S.E. Asia and Australia. It is a potential source of timber for poles, fuel and tannin, and bark as a condiment.

Notes: This species is distinguished from B. parviflora from its bronze-coloured twigs, glabrous calyx-tube which equals its lobes in length.

References :

1. Ding Hou (1958). In : C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5 : 467.

2. Henslow, G. (1878). In : J. D. Hooker, FL Brit. India 2: 438.

3. Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 1: 450.

4. Mitra, R. L. & L. K. Banerjee (1979). Bull. Bot. Surv. India 21 : 142.

5. Trimen, H. (1894). Fl. Ceyl. 2 : 154.

6. Watson, J. G. (1928). Mal. For. Rec. 6: 110. t. 15 & 16.

 

 

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Savigny; Rhizophora gymnorrhiza L.; Bruguiera rheedii Blume; Bruguiera conjugata Merr.

RHIZOPHORACEAE

Local names: Kankra, Natinga (Beng.); Kakra (Hind.); Banduri (Or.); Thudduponna (Tel.).

Description: Large trees up to 30 m tall, stem-base with many knee-like bent roots. Leaves 7.5-15 x 4-6 cm, elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, acute at apex, obtuse at base; stipules and petioles reddish. Flowers 3-5 cm long, scarlet, axillary, solitary; calyx 10-16-lobed, lobes usually l/5th of the length of the calyx-tube; petals 10-15 mm long, stiff, bilobed with a bristle in the sinus, bristle shorter than the lobes, each petal-lobe with 3-4 apical 1.5-4 mm long cilia, outer margins of petals fringed with white silky hairs. Hypocotyle 10-15 cm long, cigar-shaped, obscurely ribbed.

Ecology: Frequent on elevated interior parts of mangrove forests, often in association with species of Rhizophora and Ceriops, in the inter-tidal regions.

Flowering and Fruiting: Throughout the year.

Distribution: In India this species occurs in tidal swamps along the both the coasts of the Peninsula and in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The species is distributed in the tropics of Africa to Pacific isles through Egypt, Indus, India, Sri Lanka, Trop. Asia and Australia.

Uses: The species is exploited for its hard-wood stems used in building fishing boats and houses, electric poles and for charcoal making and yields tannin. Its leaves are used as fodder.

Notes: B. gymnorrhiza is distinguished from the other species of the genus by its red coloured petioles, mid-rib of leaves and flowers.

References:

Ding Hou (1958). In. C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5: 461.

Henslow, G. (1878). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 437.

Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 1: 450.

Mitra, R.L. & L.K. Banerjee (1979). Bull. Bot. Surv. India 21: 142-150.

Parkinson, C.E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 164.

Watson, J.G. (1928). Mat. For. Rec. 6: 110, t. 15 & 16.

 

 

Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wt. & Am. ex Griff. RHIZOPHORACEAE

Local names : Champa (Beng.), Bon bakul (Or.).

Trees, upto 18 m tall, with many upright branches; stem-base buttressed with flesh-coloured knee-like bent roots. Leaves 6.5— 10.5 X 2.5—4 cm, elliptic-oblong, refuse at apex, attenuate at base, petioles 2—2.5 cm long, yellowish. Inflorescence axillary, peduncu­late cyme, 2—3-flowered; flowers greenish-white; calyx-tube upto 2 cm long in fruit, narrow, ribbed; petals 1.5—2 mm, white, bilobed, apex of the petal-lobe with 3 long cilia; sinus with a bristle, petal margins sparsely hairy. Hypocotyle 7—12 cm long, smooth, cylindri­cal, slightly curved in the middle.

Frequent along intertidal regions of estuarine banks in man­grove forests and usually grows in sheltered parts behind Avicennia marina communities. Flowering and fruiting from April—September. The species is distributed in tidal forests of the Indian peninsula, Andaman Islands; S.E. Asia and Australia. The species is exploit­ed for its straight-boled stems for poles, fuel, timber, and is used in charcoal making. The fruits are used in making a medicine for eye diseases and its knee-bent roots yield a perfume.

Notes : B. parviflora is easily recognised from B. cylindrica from its yellowish petioles; ribbed, narrow calyx-tube and articulate pedi­cels of flowers.

References :

1. Ding Hou (1958). In .- C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5 : 464.

2. Henslow, G. (1878). In: 3. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 438.

3. King, G. (1898). /. As. Soc. Beng. 66(2) : 315.

4. Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 1 : 449.

5. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 164.

6. Watson, J. G. (1928). Mal. For. Rec. 6: 111, t. 17 & IS.

 

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Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. RHIZOPHORACEAE

(B. gymnorrhiza Lamk.; B. eriopetala Wt. & Arn. ex Arn.). Local names: Banduri, Kankra (Beng.); Kekra, Rasinia (Or.).

Trees, upto 12 m tall; trunk about 40 cm in diam at base, buttressed; bark smooth, grey to pale brown, lenticellate on buttres-sus and stilt-roots. Leaves 9—15 X 3—6 cm, elliptic-oblong, oblong or oblanceate, acute at apex, cuneate or rarely obtuse at base; petioles 2—3.5 cm long, orange-yellow. Flowers 3—3.5 cm long, axillary, solitary; calyx 10—13-lobed, orange-yellow; petals 10— 13, 1.5—2 cm long, bilobed towards the apex, fringed with white hairs along the outer margins. Hypocotyle 7—13 cm long, 1.5—2 cm thick, cigar-shaped, rarely slightly curved, obscurely grooved.

Frequent along the outer fringes of tidal forests inundated more with fresh water; sporadic on newly formed mudflats and along channels in the interior of mangrove areas. Flowering and fruit­ing almost throughout the year. In India the species occurs in almost all the tidal swamps on both the coasts and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is widely distributed in the man­grove swamps of Africa, West Asia, tropical Asia, S.E. Asia, Australia and the Pacific. The species is extensively used for timber, fuel wood, tannin extraction and fodder purposes.

Notes : It is easily identified by orange-yellow petioles and midribs of the leaves and solitary orange-yellow flowers in the leaf-axils.

References :

1. Ding Hou (1958). 7n .- C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5 : 463. f. 17 m & 18.,

2. Henslow, G. (1878). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 438 (as B. eriopetala Wt. & Arn.).

3. Mitra, R. L. & L. K. Banerjee (1979). Bull. Bot. Surv. India 21 : 148.

4. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 164.

5. Watson, J. G. (1928). Mal. For. Rec. 6 : 109, t. lla.

6. Wight, R. (1839). Ic. 239B.

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Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou (C. roxburghiana Am.)RHIZOPHORACEAE

Local names: Goran (Beng., Hind), Garlah (Or.), Chiru Kandal (Tarn.), Gatharu (Tel.).

Shrubs or small trees, 2—4 m tall; bark light-grey, peeling off into thin flakes; stem-base pyramidal with many stilt-roots. Leaves 4—10 X 2—& cm, elliptic-oblong or obovate, emarginate at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 3—4 mm across, white, in axillary con­densed cymes; calyx 5—6-merous, each 3—4 mm long; petals 5—6, each 2.5 mm long, apex tipped with many ciliae. Hypocotyle 10— 12 cm long, angular, sulcate.

Common along sheltered parts in the interior of tidal swamps, sporadic towards outer mangrove areas. Flowering and fruiting almost throughout the year. In India the species is more common in the mangrove forests along the east coast and is less frequent in the mangrove areas in Kerala on the west coast. Its geogra­phical distribution extends from E. Africa to Australia through Madagascar, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand and Malesia. The bark of the species is an excellent source of tannin and its wood is used for boat building, fuel purposes, and its flow­ers are a source of good quality honey.

Notes : C. decandra is dinstinguished from C. tagal by its shrubby form, petals fringed with many ciliae and anther-lobes longer than the filaments.

References :

1. Ding Hou (1958). In : C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5 : 471. t. 24, f—h.

2. Gamble, J. S, (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1: 323. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

3. Henslow, G. (1878). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 436.

4. Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 1: 448.

5. Trimen, H. (1894). Fl. Ceyl. 2 : 153.

6. Wight, R. (1840). ///. Ind. Bot. 1 : 209.

 

 

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. E. Robin. (C. candolleana Arn.) RHIZOPHORACEAE

Local names: Goran, Mat goran (Beng.), Kandal (Mal.), Kirrari, Chauri (Mar.), Gari goran (Or.), Pandikutti (Tarn.).

Small trees, upto 6 m tall, much branched, stem-base pyrami­dal in outline, buttressed and with stilt-roots. Leaves 6—12 X 3—6 cm, ovate-oblong ojr obovate, leathery, emarginate or rounded at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 5—7 mm across, white, resinous, in upper axillary condensed cymes; calyx 5-lobed, lobes linear; petals 5, each 3—3.5 mm long with 3 clavate appendanges at the tip and uncinate hairs at base; stamens 10, alternately long and short. Fruit slightly conical. Hypocotyle 20—25 cm long, gradually thicken­ing towards the pointed apex, deeply grooved and ribbed, reddish-brown.

Common along the intertidal banks of mangrove swamps, more so in areas nearer to and under estuarine influence. Flowering and fruiting during March—August. Distributed in almost all the tidal swamps along both the coasts of Indian peninsula and Anda­man and Nicobar Islands. It is widely distributed from East Africa to Australia and the Pacific. The species is exploited for its bark sup­plies an excellent tanning material and a decoction of it is used to stop haemorrhage and as an application to malignant ulcers. A decoction of the shoots is used as a substitute for quinine in Africa (Cooke, 1967); its wood is used as fuel, for boat building and yields an adhesive; flowers are a rich source of honey and bee wax.

References :

1. Cooke, T. (1967). FI. Pres. Bombay 1 : 503. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

2. Ding Hou (1958). In: C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5: 469. t. 24.

3. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1 : 323. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Henslow, G. (1878). In .- J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2; 436.

5. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 165.

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Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce (K. rheedii Wt. & Arn.)RHIZOPHORACEAE

Local names : Goria (Beng.), Bakul Rasunia (Or.), Thuvar Kandan(Tel.).

Small trees, upto 6 m tall, much branched, branches erect, thick, brittle, stem-base buttressed with stilt-roots. Leaves 8—12 X 2.5— 4.5 cm, oblong, dark green above, light reddish-brown beneath, rounded at apex, obtuse at base. Flowers in axillary dichotomous-ly branched cymes, 8—9-flowered; flowers 1—1.5 cm long, white; calyx 12—15 mm long, 5-lobed, reflexed; petals 5, each 8—10 mm long, each divided into numerous capillary segments. Fruits about 3 cm long, conic-ovoid, 1-celled, single seeded. Hypocotyle 30—60 cm long, spindle-shaped, pointed towards the radicle end.

Gregarious along the banks of intertidal creeks and channels in the mangroves forests. Flowering and fruiting from April—Septem­ber. In India the species is found in all the tidal forests on the east and west coasts and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is distri­buted in the mangrove forests of Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Malesia. It is a pontential source of firewood and charcoal and its leaves are used as fodder.

Notes: K. candel is monotypic and is readily recognised from the other species of Rhizophoraceae by its linear-oblong, reflexed calyx-lobes, indefinite number of stamens and the long, smooth hypocotyle.

References :

1. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay I; 504. (2nd repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

2. Ding Hou (1958). In : C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5 : 473.

3. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1 : 324. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Henslow, G. (1878). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 437.

5. Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 2: 449.

6. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 165. 11

 

 

Rhizophora apiculata Bl.RHIZOPHORACEAE

(R. conjugata auct. non Linn.)

Local names: Garjan (Beng.), Pikantal (Mal.), Kamodumbi (Mar.), Rai (Or.), Kandal (Tarn.), Uppu ponna (Tel.).

Trees, upto 30 m tall with pyramidal crowns and many ascending branches; stem-base supported by numerous branched stilt-roots. Leaves 10—20 X 5—8 cm, elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, entire, acute or apiculate at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 10—12 mm across, sessile, white or cream-coloured, in pairs of upper leaf-axils; calyx 4-lobed, concave, accrescent, reflexed in fruit; corolla 4-lobed, lobes fleshy, glabrous, caducous; stamens 12, 4 episepalous paired, 4 epipetalous. Hypocotyle 30—50 cm long, cylindrical, clavate.

Frequent or sometimes gregarious along the inter-tidal regions of creeks and channels mostly in the sheltered parts of mangrove forests, nearer to estuarine conditions. Flowering and fruiting during May—September. Distributed throughout the mangrove forests along the east and west coasts of the Indian peninsula and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The species occurs from tropical East Africa to N. Australia through the Indus, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, S. Asia and S.E. Asia. Its wood forms a potential source of tannin and finds application in plywood, adhesive, dye bark, cellophane, rayon, ferro-alloys, cellulose acetate industries and as a substitute for petroleum coke for calcium car­bide, besides being used as fuel-wood and in medicines; its leaves are used as fodder. The intricate stems with several stilt-roots are effective as tide brakers and check land run off and form an ideal niche for several faunal species.

Notes : R. apiculata is distinguished from the other two species by its acute leaf-tip, 2-flowered inflorescence, glabrous petal-lobes and 12 stamens of flowers.

References :

1. Ding Hou (1958). In : C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5 : 452.

2. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : 502. (2nd repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

Rhizophora mucronata Lamk.RHIZOPHORACEAE

Local names .- Same as Ihe preceeding species.

Trees, upto 20 m tall, with many upwardly growing branches; leaf-scars prominent, close; stem- base supported by numerous branched stilt-roots. Leaves 10—18 X 4—10 cm, broadly elliptic or ovate-oblong, coriaceous, abruptly acute or blunt with a rolled up lip (mucro) at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers in axillary cymes, 4—8 in number, pedicellate, cream-coloured, fragrant; calyx 12—14 mm long, ovate; petals 9—10 mm long, lanceolate, fleshy, villose; stamens 6—8 mm long, 8 in number, 4 episepalous, 4 epipetalous; styles 1—2 mm; free part of ovary emerging much above the disk. Hypocotyle 30—65 cm long, cylindrical.

Common and often gregarious along the intertidal banks of creeks and channels in sheltered mangrove areas under estuarine influence. Flowering and fruiting from July—October. In India, this species is predominant in the Sunderbans, and other east coast man­grove forests and Andaman and Nicobar Islands and is less known on the west coast. A species of old world tropics distributed from East Africa to the Pacific Isles through S. Asia, S.E. Asia and N.E. Austra­lia. The species is used for similar purposes as those in the case of R. apiculata.

Notes : R. mucronata is readily recognised from R. apiculata from its axillary cymes with more than two flowers, hairy petals and 8 stamens.

References :

1. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : 501 (2nd repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

2. Ding Hou (1958). In .- C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5 : 453.

3. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1: 323 (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih. & Orissa 2 : 362 (repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

5. Henslow, G. (1878). In: J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 435.

6. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 164.

 

 

Rhizophora stylosa Griff. Local name: Samudra Rai (Or.)RHIZOPHORACEAE

Trees, upto 12 m tall with many sympodial branches; stem-base supported by many branching stilt-roots. Leaves 6—15 X 5— 7 cm, broadly elliptic-oblong, coriaceous, obtuse at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers in dichofomously branching axillary cymes, 8—16 in number, pedicellate; peduncles 3—5 cm, 4—6 limes forked; calyx lobes 7—9 mm; petals yellowish, purple tinged at apices, fleshy, 6—7 mm long, densely hairy along the margins; stamens 8, 4 episepalous, 4 epipetalous; styles 3—5 mm long, slightly forked. Hypocotyle 20—50 cm long, cylindrical, warty. '

Sporadic and rather uncommon, on shallow muddy estuarine banks of rivers. Flowering and fruiting from August—October. In India the species is reported only from the Gahirimata estuary in Orissa coast. It is distributed in Malay peninsula, Java, Formosa and N. Australia. It is also used for the same purposes stated under /?. apiculata.

Notes : R. stylosa is recognised from the other two species of Rhizophora by its longer style and free part of the ovary seated on the disk.

References :

1. Banerjee, L. K. (1986). Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 83: 271-273.

2. Ding Hou (1958). 'In: C.G.G.J. van Steenis, Fl. Malesiana 5: 456.

3. Ridley, H. N. (1922). Fl. Malay Penins. 1 : 693.

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Sonneratia alba J. Sm.SONNERATIACEAE

Small frees upto 5 m tall, much branched, pneumatophores many, corky. Leaves glabrous, coriaceous, 5—7.5 X 4—6 cm, elliptic, oblong or suborbicular, obtuse at apex, narrowed to a short petiole at base; petiole 3—6 mm long. Flowers 3—5 cm across, white; calyx-tube cup-shaped, 6—8-lobed, lobes obscure in flower, distinct in fruit; petals white, small, ovary depressed-globose; style upto 4 cm long, stigma capitate. Fruit 3 cm in diam, obconi-cal with persistent calyx and pointed style.

Frequent in the intertidal areas in mangrove forests. Flow­ering and fruiting during April—September. In India the species is reported only from Andaman Islands (possibly also in Nicobar Islands). It is distributed in the tidal forests in tropical Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles, Andamans, Burma, Malayasia, N. Australia and Micronesia.

It is used for the same purposes as in the case of other Sonneratia species.

Notes: The species closely resembles S. casealaris, but is distinguish­ed from its ribbed calyx with obconical base.

References :

1. Backer, C. A. & C.G.G.J. van Steenis (1951). Fl. Malesiana 2 : 285.

2. Clarke, C. B. (1879). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2: 580.

3. Kurz, S. (1877). For. Fl. Burma 1 : 526.

4. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 179.

 

 

Sonneratia apetala Buch.-H-im.SONNERATIACEAE

Local names: Keora (Beng., Or.), Marama (Tarn.), Kalingi (Tel.).

Trees, upto 30 m tall, crown large, branches many, drooping, bark thin, light-brown, irregularly fissured : buttresses not prominent; pneumatophores 60—150 cm long, arising from horizontal roots, corky, forked twice or thrice, associated with anchor roots and nutrition roots. Leaves 4—10 X 2—3 cm, thick, narrowly ellipic-oblong, tapering towards apex, attenuate at base. .Flowers 1.5— 2 cm across, apetalous, cream-coloured, arranged in axillary, 3-flow-ered dichasial or 7-flowered cymes from the branch axils; calyx 4-merous, reflexed; petals absent; stamens many; stigma large, umbrella-shaped. Fruit 2—2.5 cm across, a globose berry seated on the flattened calyx-tube.

Gregarious along the intertidal esluarine regions of mangrove forests, often as a pioneer species on newly formed mudflats. Flow­ering and fruiting from March—July. The species occurs in the mangrove forests on both the coasts of India from Bombay to Sunderbans. Distributed in Sri Lanka (Koddiyarstem island); and Moulmein in Burma. Its stem is used for paper pulp, matches, and as poles; leaves as fodder; its fruits are used as vegetable.

Notes: The species is easily identified from the other two species of the genus by its narrowly elliptic leaves, apetalous flowers, 4-merous calyx and large umbrella-shaped stigma.

References :

1. Backer, C. A. & C.G.G.J. van Sleenis (1951). Fl. Malesiana 4 : 286.

2. Clarke, C. B. (1879). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 579.

3. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : 547. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1 : 363. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

Sonneratia caseolarls (L.) Engl. (S. acida Linn, f.)SONNERATIACEAE

Local names: Keora (Beng.), Blatti, Thirala (Mal.), Pedda kalingi

(Tel.)

(Small trees upto 6 m tall, bark white; branches low and spread­ing; pneumatophores many, corky, arising from the horizontal roots. Leaves 5—10 X 3—5 cm, nearly sessile, elliptic-oblong or obovate, mucronate at apex, much attenuated at base. Flowers 4—6 cm across, reddish-purple, solitary and terminal; calyx-tube flattened, 6-lobed; petals 6, linear oblong, 2 cm long, membranous; ovary depressed-globose; style nearly 3 cm long, stigma capitate. Fruits 4—6 cm in diam, depressed-globose with persistent calyx and pointed style.

Common along the intertidal banks of creeks and channels in mangrove forests, flourishing well in areas under fresh water inunda­tion. Flowering and fruiting duringMarch—July. Occurs in the man­grove forests along both the coasts of the Indian peninsula and in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Distributed in the tropical mangrove forests of Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, S.E. Asia, Philippines and N. Australia. The species finds application for the uses mentioned under S. apetala. Its soft pneumalophores are reportedly used as a substitute for cork in Sri Lanka.

References :

1. Backer, C. A. & C.G.G.J. van Steenis (1951). Fl. Malesiana 4: 283.

2. Clarke, C. B. (1879). 7n : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 579.

3. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : 547 (2nd repr, ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

4. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Madras 1 : 364. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

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Sonneratio griffithii Kurz SONNERATIACEAE

Local name : Ora (Or.). 

Large trees, upto 20 m tall, crown large, branches many, drooping; pneumatophores numerous, corky. Leaves &12 X 3—7 cm, obovate or suborbicular, thickly coriaceous, emarginate at apex, cuneate at base. Flowers 6—8 cm across, apetalous, white, solitary at apices of terminal branchlets; calyx 6—8-merous, spreading in fruit; stamens many, white. Fruits 5—8 cm across, ovoid-globose, flattened or depressed above, partly enclosed by persistent calyx at base.

.Sporadic on muddy banks of estuarine mouths subjected to tidal inundation. Flowering and fruiting from April—September. In India the species is reported only from the Mahanadi tidal forests and Andaman Islands. It is distributed in Africa, Bangladesh (Sunderbans, Chittagong), Burma (Mergui), West Malay Peninsula and Australia. The species is used for the same purposes reported under S. apetala and the fruits are reportedly pickled and eaten.

Notes : S. grifflthii is distinguished from the other two species (report­ed from India) from its obovate leaves, large solitary white flowers with white stamens and larger globose fruits flattened or depressed at apex.

References :

1. Backer, C. A. & C.G.G.J. van Steenis (1951). Fl. Malesiana 4: 286.

2. Banerjee, L. K. (1986). Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 83: 271-273.

3. Clarke, C. B. (1879). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 2 : 580.

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Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham. (H. minor Roxb.)STERCULIACEAE

Local names: Sundari (Beng. & Or.).

Trees upto 20 m tall, trunk about 50 cm in diam at base, prominently buttressed; blaze dark-red; young branches covered wilh shining golden-brown scales; roofs wilh numerous woody peg-like pneumatophores or blind root suckers. Leaves 5—12 X 3—6 cm, elliptic, upper surface green, lower surface shining with silvery scales, tapering at both the ends. Flowers in axillary panicles, uni­sexual, densely pubescent, golden-yellow with reddish tinge inside; calyx 5 or rarely 4—6, toothed; petals absent; male flowers : stamens united into a column and anther lobes forming a ring at the top; female flowers : carpels 5—6, nearly free. Fruit (ripe carpels) 3—4 cm across, subglobose, corrugated, woody, indehiscent, furrowed on the inside and less prominently winged on the outer side.

Common along the inner fringes of mangrove forests on mud flats inundated more with fresh water. Flowering and fruiting during May—August. In India the species is distributed in the Sunderbans and Mahanadi tidal forests. Its distribution extends into the Irrawady deltaic areas in Burma and in tidal forests in Borneo. The species is a potential source of timber and is extensively exploited for boat building, plough making and in viscose rayon industry. Its seeds are reported to be medicinal in curing piles.

Notes : H. fames is distinguished from its shining silvery under surface of leaves and subglobose fruits wilh longitudinal and transverse ridges.

References :

1. Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih. & Orissa I : 81 (repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

2. Kostcrmans, A. J. G. H. (1959). Reinwardtia 4: 473.

3. Masfers, M. T. (1874). In : 3. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1 : 363.

4. Prain, D. (1963). Bengal Pi. 1 : 188 (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

Heritiera kanikensis Majumdar et Banerjee STERCULIACEAE

Local name : Sundari (Or.).

Medium sized trees, 5—7 m tall; pneumatophores many from roots at stem base. Leaves 4—10 X 2—5 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse or rarely acute at apex, tapering towards base, upper sur­face glabrous, green, lower surface hairy with adpressed shining scales. Male flowers blrownish-white, androgynophore 1 mm long; anther lobes 8, united to form a ring, crowned by sterile rudimen­tary ovaries at apex. Female flowers with ca 1 mm long ellipsoid ovaries. Fruits globose, rough, 1.5—2 mm in diam, without transverse circular ridge or apical crest.

Rare along intertidal banks of tidal creeks and channels in mangrove forest at Bhitarkanika, Mahanadi delta, Orissa. Flowering and fruiting from May—August. The species is so far known from the Mahanadi tidal forests in Orissa, India. Its wood is used in building fishing boats, making ploughs and in viscose rayon industry.

Notes .- The species is closely allied to H. fomes but is readily recog­nised from the other two species of Heritiera by its rough glo­bose fruits devoid of any ridge and crest.

Reference :

1. Majumdar, N. C. & L. K. Banerjee (1985). Bull. Bot. Surv. India 27 : 150-151.

 

 

Heritiera littorallis Dryand.STERCULIACEAE

Local names; Sundri (Mal.), Bara sundari (Or.). The looking-glass plant (Eng.).

Large frees upto 25 m tall, trunk 30—80 cm in diam at base, buttressed, bark thin, grey, longitudinally fissured. Leaves 7—2.5 X 10—20 cm, coriaceous, broadly elliptic or ovate-elliptic, acute or acuminate at apex, obliquely cordate at base, upper surface green, glabrous, lower surface covered with white flmbriate scales. Flowers in axillary panicles, golden-yellow, tinged with red inside, stellate-pubescent, unisexual; male flowers 3—4 mm across, androgyno-phore white, ringed by the anther lobes; female flowers 4—5 mm across, with sterile anthers at the base of ovary. Fruits (ripe carpels) 8—12 cm across, ellipsoid, smooth, light brown, inner side flat with a prominent midrib bending towards the apex, outer side with a well developed rudder-like crest or wing.

Rather less frequent; on sandy tidal banks in the back man­grove region associated with Hibiscus tiliaceus and Xylocarpus grana. turn. Flowering during November—January and fruiting from Feb­ruary—June. In India the species occurs on the Malabar, N. Kanara, S. Konkan coasts, in the Bhitarkanika area of the Mahanadi tidal forests in Orissa and in the coastal forests of Andaman Islands. It is not collected so far from the Sunderbans. Its reported inland distribution extending into Khasi and Cachar hills is interesting (Masters, 1874). The species is distributed from tropical Africa to Australia through India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Java and Malesia. Its wood is dark red, heavy and durable and forms a potential source of timber used for making boats, furniture and in viscose rayon industry.

Notes : This species is recognised from //. fames by its larger leaves with oblique bases, 8—12 cm long smooth ellipsoid fruits with a well developed wing on the outer side and a keel on the inner side.

References :

1. Cooke, T. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

134. (2nd repr. ed.).

2. Gamble, J. S. (1967). Fl. Pres. Bombay 1 : 74. (2nd repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

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Brownlowiia tersa (Linn.) Kosterm. (B. lanceolata Benlh.) TILIACEAE

Local names: Bola sundari, Kedar sundari (Beng.), Pani sundari (Or.).

Shrubs, 2—3 m tall, much branched; young twigs brown-scaly. Leaves 10—15 X 3—4 cm, lanceolate, densely dull silvery-scaly underneath, acuminate at apex, rounded at base. Flowers

3—4 mm across, flesh-coloured, in axillary or terminal cymes; calyx

4—5-lobed, connate below; petals 5, free; stamens many, alternating with 5 petaloid staminodes opposite the petals. Fruits 1—1.5 cm across, pyriform, woody with a line separating the 2-valved carpels, brown-scaly.

Sporadic along the intertidal regions of creeks and channels in the back mangrove areas of tidal forests. It often grows along the banks in stands and remains submerged nearly to half during high tide, withstanding the tidal surge by its intricate root system. Flower­ing and fruiting from May—September. It occurs in the tidal forests in the Sunderbans, Mahanadi and Andamans and Irrawadi delta, Burma. Its wood'is used for fuel and fruits are considered medicinal.

Notes: B. tersa is readily recognised in the field from its brown-scaly twigs, lanceolate leaves with dull silvery under surface and pear-shaped, 2-valved carpels (fruits).

References :

1. Haines, H. H. (1961). Bot. Bih. & Orissa 1 : 87 (repr. ed.). Bota­nical Survey of India, Calcutta.

2. Kostermans, A. J. G. H. (1959). Reinwardtia 4: 536.

3. Masters, M. J. (1874). In : J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 1 : 381.

4. Parkinson, C. E. (1923). For. Fl. Andaman Islands, p. 105.

5. Prain. D. (1961). Bengal PI. 1 : 192. (repr. ed.). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

 

 

The following plant species which are not strictly mangroves are usually seen in hinterland parts of tidal swamps under fresh water conditions along coastal districts in India.

 

Barringtonia racemosa Roxb. (Barringtoniaceae).

Small ornamental trees with cream coloured flowers in pendent racemes. Common along river banks. Throughout the coastal regions in India. South-east Asia, Polynesia.

 

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Caesalplnia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (Caesalpiniaceae).

Prickly climbers with yellow flowers. Frequent on bushes along forest margins. All over coastal districts in India; tropical coasts all over world.

 

Clerodendrum inerme Gaertn. (Verbenaceae).

Straggling shrubs with white flowers. Common along tidal forests, coastal areas. Often planted as a hedge plant. Throughout India at low levels; Indo-China.

 

Ftonbiistylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl (Cyperaceae).

Tufted sedge with brownish spikelets. Common on mud flats and hinterland clearings in the vicinity of mangrove forests. Throu­ghout India; tropics and sub-tropics of world.

 

Hibiscus tiliaceous L. (Malvaceae)

Medium sized trees with yellow bell-shaped flowers having a crimson-coloured eye inside, changing to brownish-red. Common on banks of tidal rivers in hinterland. Throughout coastal areas in India and Sri Lanka.

 

Ipomoea tuba (Schl.) G. Don (Convolvulaceae).

Extensively spreading climber with large cordate leaves and showy white flowers in hinterland vegetation along river banks, in the vicinity of mangrove forests. Throughout India near tidal swamps; Indo-China, Malesia.

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Merope angulata (Willd.) Swingle (Rutaceae),

Thorny sub-shrubs with white flowers and egg-shaped 3-angled fruits. Frequent along river banks in the hinter-land tidal forests only at Batighar, Mahanadi delta, Orissa in India; Malacca.

 

Pandanus odoratissimus Linn. f. (Pandanaceae).

Dichotomously branching large shrubs with long spinulose-mar-gined leaves crowned at branch ends; inflorescence sweet-scented. Common all over coastal parts in India, often cultivated.

 

Pluchea indita Less. (Asteraceae).

Aromatic undershrubs with white flower heads. Common along back mangrove areas in Sunderbans; Malesia, China.

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Salacla chinensis L. (Hippocrataceae).

Climbing shrubs with greenish-yellow flowers. Rare in hinterlands of tidal swamps and coastal areas in India; Burma, Malesia, Indo-China and China.

 

Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae).

Shrubs or small trees with white flowers. Frequent in degrad­ed mangrove swamps and saline blanks. All over the West Coast of India; West Asia.

 

Scyphiiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f. (Rubiaceae).

Small trees resembling Lumnitzera racemosa with white flowers. Rare, only along east coast of Indian peninsula and Andaman Islands.

 

Stenochlaena palustre (Burm.) Bedd. (Polypodiaceae).

Climbing fern with dimorphic fronds. Rare, only seen on sand­bars of tidal forests in Mahanadi delta, Orissa; Sri Lanka, South China and Polynesia.

 

Sltetocardia tiiliifolia (Desr.) Hall. f. (Convolvulaceae).

Climbing shrubs with large rose-purple flowers. Frequent in hinterland thickets of tidal forests in Bengal and along west coastal areas in India; Malesia and Philippines.

 

Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa (Malvaceae).

Handsome trees with showy yellow flowers. Common all along coastal areas and often planted. Tropics of Old World.

 

Thespesia populneoldes (Roxb.) Kostel (Malvaceae).

Small trees with yellow flowers. Frequent in hinterland areas of tidal swamps and muddy coastal areas along east coast of India and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tropics of Old World.

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Tylophora tenuis Bl. (Asclepiada ceae).

Slender twining herbs with scarlet flowers and divergent folli­cles. Frequent in Sunderbans, Mahanadi tidal swamps; Java and Borneo.

 

HALOPHYTES OF SALT PANS AND BLANKS

 

Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. (Poaceae).

Small much branched grass with terminal globose flower-heads. Common all along coasts and interior salt pans in Punjab; Arabia and West Asia.

 

Arthrocnemum indllcum (Willd.) Moq. (Chenopodiaceae).

Fleshy leafless sub-shrubs with jointed stems and tiny flowers. Common in salt marshes in mangroves and muddy coasts of Indian Peninsula; Sri Lanka, tropical Africa.

 

Salilcornia brachlata Roxb. (Chenopodiaceae).

Fleshy leafless herbs with jointed stems and minute flowers. Common on saline mud flats and degraded mangrove areas. Through­out India; Sri Lanka.

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Scirpus littoralis Schrad. (Cyperaceae).

Tall sedge with terminal umbels. Frequent along muddy banks of tidal creeks in hinterlands of mangroves. Throughout India; West Asia, Africa.

 

Sesuvlum portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae).

Succulent creeping herbs with purple flowers. Frequent all along Indian coast and in muddy tidal flats. Pantropical.

 

Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort. (Chenopodiaceae).

Undershrubs with fleshy terete leaves and small flowers in glo­bose clusters. Common all along the Indian coast on mud-flats and salt marshes. Pantropical.

 

Suaeda monoica Forsk. ex Gmel. (Chenopodiaceae).

Small erect or decumbent herbs with linear leaves and small flowers. Common on tidal mud-flats and salt marshes along Indian coasts. West Asia to tropical Africa.

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Suaeda nudiflora (Willd.) Moq. (Chenopodiaceae).

Perennial undershrubs with linear-ovate leaves falling off early and small flowers in globose axillary clusters. Common on salt marsh­es and tidal blanks in Indian mangroves and coastal areas; Sri Lanka, Malesia, Australia, N. Africa and N. America.

 

Tamarilx troupil Hole (Tamaricaceae).

Shrubs with subulate stem-clasping leaves and pinkish-white flowers. Frequent along river-banks and mud-flats in tidal forests, all along the Indian coasts; Burma, tropical Africa, West Asia, N. Europe.

 

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