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| Last Updated:: 20/01/2021

Bryophytes in India



Bryophytes, the amphibians of the ‘Plant Kingdom’, and the second largest group of green plants next only to the angiosperms constitute a fascinating component of biodiversity and are widely spread in almost all climatic conditions. They collectively represent three different groups (phyla), viz., Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts) and the Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In India, the bryophytes are represented by 2562 taxa (1636 mosses, 887 liverworts and 39 hornworts). They usually inhabit narrow ecological niches with preference for damp and shady conditions. In Himalayas, Northeast and Peninsular India and in Andaman & Nicobar Islands the bryophytes are rich in diversity and well represented due to prevailing of high rainfall and humidity. Two genera and 168 species of liverworts, 19 species of hornworts and 547 species of mosses are endemic to India. The bryophytes provide vital ecosystem services like soil formation, habitat modification and nutrient cycling and are useful in pollution detection and monitoring. The flavonoids and terpenoids contained in majority of them show various biological activities with considerable potential of chemical and pharmaceutical properties.






Treubiaceae Verd.

1.        Apotreubia S.Hatt. & Mizut.

Haplomitriaceae Dědeček

1.        Haplomitrium Nees

Blasiaceae H. Klinggr.

1.        Blasia L.

Riellaceae Engl.

1.        Riella Mont.

Lunulariaceae H. Klinggr.

1.        Lunularia Adans.

Marchantiaceae Lindl.

1.        Marchantia L.

2.        Preissia Corda

Aytoniaceae Cavers

1.        Asterella P.Beauv.

2.        Cryptomitrium Austin ex Underw.

3.        Mannia Opiz

4.        Plagiochasma Lehm. & Lindenb.

5.        Reboulia Raddi

Cleveaceae Cavers

1.        Athalamia Falconer

2.        Clevea Cavers

3.        Sauteria Nees

Monosoleniaceae Inoue

1.        Monosolenium Griff.

Conocephalaceae Müll. Frib. ex Grolle

1.        Conocephalum Hill

Cyathodiaceae Stotler & Crand.-Stotl.

1.        Cyathodium Kunze

Exormothecaceae Müll. Frib. ex Grolle


1.        Aitchisoniella Kashyap

2.        Exormotheca Mitt.

3.        Stephensoniella Kashyap

Ricciaceae Rchb.

1.        Riccia L.

2.        Ricciocarpos Corda

Wiesnerellaceae Inoue

1.        Wiesnerella Schiffn.

Targioniaceae Dumort.

1.        Targionia L.

Dumortieraceae D.G.Long

1.        Dumortiera Nees







Pelliaceae H. Klinggr.

1.        Pellia Raddi

Calyculariaceae He-Nygrén, Juslén, Ahonen, Glenny & Piippo

1.        Calycularia Mitt.


Petalophyllaceae Stotler & Crand.-Stotl.

1.        Petalophyllum Nees & Gottsche ex Lehm.

2.        Sewardiella Kashyap

Fossombroniaceae Hazsl.

1.        Fossombronia Raddi

Pallaviciniaceae Mig.

1.        Pallavicinia Gray

Pleuroziaceae Müll.Frib.

1.        Pleurozia Dumort.

Metzgeriaceae H.Klinggr.

1.        Apometzgeria Kuwah.

2.        Metzgeria Raddi

Aneuraceae H.Klinggr.

1.        Aneura Dumort.

2.        Riccardia Gray

Porellaceae Cavers

1.        Porella L.

Radulaceae Müll.Frib.

1.        Radula Dumort.

Frullaniaceae Lorch

1.        Frullania Raddi

Jubulaceae H.Klinggr.

1.        Jubula Dumort.

Lejeuneaceae Cavers

1.        Acanthocoleus R.M. Schust.

2.        Acrolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

3.        Archilejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

4.        Caudalejeunea (Steph.) Schiffn.

5.        Ceratolejeunea (Spruce) J.B. Jack & Steph.

6.        Cheilolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

7.        Cololejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

8.        Colura (Dumort.) Dumort.

9.        Drepanolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

10.    Frullanoides Raddi

11.    Lejeunea Lib.

12.    Lepidolejeunea R.M. Schust.

13.    Leptolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

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Lejeuneaceae Cavers (Contd..)

14.    Lopholejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

15.    Mastigolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

16.    Metalejeunea Grolle

17.    Microlejeunea Steph.

18.    Myriocoleopsis Schiffn.

19.    Otolejeunea Grolle & Tixier

20.    Ptychanthus Nees

21.    Schiffneriolejeunea Verd.

22.    Spruceanthus Verd.

23.    Thysananthus Lindenb.

24.    Tuyamaella S. Hatt.

25.    Tuzibeanthus S. Hatt.

Ptilidiaceae H. Klinggr.

1.        Ptilidium Nees

Schistochilaceae H.Buch

1.        Schistochila Dumort.

Pseudolepicoleaceae Fulford & J. Taylor

1.        Blepharostoma (Dumort.) Dumort.

2.        Pseudolepicolea Fulford & J. Taylor

3.        Temnoma Mitt.

Trichocoleaceae Nakai

1.        Trichocolea Dumort.

Mastigophoraceae R.M. Schust.

1.        Mastigophora Nees

Herbertaceae Müll. Frib. ex Fulford & Hatcher

1.        Herbertus Gray

Lepidoziaceae Limpr.

1.        Acromastigum A.Evans

2.        Bazzania Gray

3.        Dendrobazzania R.M. Schust. & W.B. Schofield

4.        Kurzia G.Martens

5.        Lepidozia (Dumort.) Dumort.

6.        Neolepidozia

7.        Telaranea Spruce ex Schiffn.







Lophocoleaceae Vanden Berghen

1.        Chiloscyphus Corda

2.        Heteroscyphus Schiffn.

3.        Lophocolea (Dumort.) Dumort.

Chonecoleaceae R.M. Schust. ex Grolle

1.        Chonecolea Grolle

Plagiochilaceae Müll. Frib. & Herzog

1.        Plagiochila (Dumort.) Dumort.

2.        Plagiochilion S.Hatt.

3.        Xenochila R.M.Schust.

Adelanthaceae Grolle

1.        Syzygiella Spruce

Cephaloziaceae Mig.

1.        Cephalozia (Dumort.) Dumort.

2.        Fuscocephaloziopsis Fulford

3.        Metahygrobiella R.M.Schust.

4.        Nowellia Mitt.

5.        Odontoschisma (Dumort.) Dumort.

6.        Schiffneria Steph.

Cephaloziellaceae Douin

1.        Cephaloziella (Spruce) Schiffn.

2.        Cylindrocolea R.M.Schust.

3.        Phycolepidozia R.M.Schust.

Anastrophyllaceae L. Söderstr., De Roo & Hedd.


1.        Anastrepta (Lindb.) Schiffn.

2.        Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph.

3.        Isopaches H.Buch

4.        Plicanthus R.M.Schust.

5.        Schizophyllum (R.M.Schust.) Váňa & L.Söderstr.

6.        Tetralophozia (R.M.Schust.) Schljakov

Scapaniaceae Mig.

1.        Diplophyllum (Dumort.) Dumort.

2.        Gottschelia Grolle

3.        Lophozia (Dumort.) Dumort.

4.        Scapania (Dumort.) Dumort.

5.        Schistochilopsis (N.Kitag.) Konstant.

6.        Tritomaria Schiffn. ex Loeske








Myliaceae Schljakov

1.      Mylia Gray

Balantiopsidaceae H.Buch

1.      Isotachis Mitt.

Acrobolbaceae E.A. Hodgs.

1.      Acrobolbus Nees

2.      Lethocolea Mitt.

Southbyaceae Váňa, Crand.-Stotl., Stotler & D.G.Long

1.      Gongylanthus Nees