ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Monday, September 16, 2019

Subject Related

What are the plants possibly / presumed Extinct ?

What are the plants indicator for Pollution ?

 What are the plants indicators for Mineral ?

Is there any plant indicator for Ground water ?

What are the plants indicator for Humus ?

 What are the plants indicator for Soil type?

Number of plant species belonging to major group expected to occur in India / World ?

Number of wild species in different Crop Group ?

What are the eight centres of origin of Cultivated Plants ?

What are the twelve mega center of Cultivate Plants?

What are the mega diversity countries of the world and what is the estimated supply of Flowering Plants ?

What are the number of species of major group of plants and micro organism described and estimated ?

Dominant plant families and there proportion to the global diversity ?

Indian hotspot and number of endemic species of higher plants?

What is the estimated endemic species from different group of plants in India ?

 

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1.  What are the plants possibly / presumed Extinct ?

      The table below showing list of  Indian plants possibly/presumed extinct :  Source Nayar and Sastry  1987 , 1988 , 1990

Family Species Known range of occurrence
Acanthaceae Neuracanthus neeianus (Wight ex T.Anders)Clarke

Dicliptera abuensis Blatter

N. Arcot dist. , Tamil Nadu

Rajasthan

Adiantaceae Adiantum soboferum Wall.ex.Hook. Assam,Nagaland,S.India,Myanmar and Malaya
Apiaceae Bunium nothum (Clarke)Mukh.

Carum Villosum Haines

Ligusticum albo-alatum Haines

Pimpinella evoluta (Clarke) Mukh.

P.pulneyensis Gamble

Nilgiri hills ;Sri lanka

Sandstone Hills of Ramnagar

Netarhat plateau, samripat,sarguja,Ranchi Dist

Naga Hills, Nagaland

Kodaikanal Sholas

Aquifoliaceae Ilex gardnerana Wight Nilgiri Hills
Asclepiadaceae Ceropegia fantastica Sedgw

C.arnottiana Wight

C.lucida Wall

C.maculata Bedd.(=C.parviflora Trimen)

Oianthus deccanensis Talb

Sulgeri, N. Kanara dist. Karnataka

Khasi Hills, Meghalaya

Khasi Hills, Meghalaya; Cachar in Assam;Riyang river,Sikkim                                                             Tamil Nadu ; Kerala ; Sri Lanka

Chatursringhi hills, Pune, Maharastra

Aspidaceae Lastreopsis wattii (Bedd) Tagawa Manipur
Asteraceae Veronia recurva Bedd ex S.Moore Annamalai Hills Tamil Nadu
Balsaminaceae Impatiens anaimudica Fischer

I.johnii E.Barnes

I.macrocarpa

Anaimudislope, Idukki district Kerala

Kalar valley,bIdukki district Kerala

Idukki district Kerala

Begoniaceae Begonia malabarica Gamble

B.canarana Miq

B.watti Clarke

Coorg, Karnataka and Trivancore hills

Western Ghats

Naga hills

Celastraceae Salacia malabarica Gamble

Euonymus serratifolius

Coorg, Karnataka and Trivancore hills

Annamalai and Nilgiri Hills Tamil Nadu

Cyperaceae Carex repanda Clarke

C. christii Boeck

Meghalaya

Nilgiri Hills Tamil Nadu

Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtia elswesii (Bak.) Bedd. Lachen, N. Sikkim; Tibet
Isoetaceae Isoetes dixitii Shende

Isoetes sampathikumarnii L.N. Rao

Maharastra

Karnataka

Lamiaceae Plectranthus bishopianus Gamble

Dipeadi concanense (Dalz)

D.rheedii Deb et Dasgupta

Urginea polyphylla Hook.f.

Palni hills, Tamil nadu

South India

Western Himalaya

Deccan peninsula

Malvaceae Abutilon ranadei Woodr.et Stapf Ambaghat, Maharastra
Menispermaceae Albertisia mecistophylla (Miers)Forman

Cyclea debiliflora Miers

C. wattii Diels

Assam; Meghalaya

Meghalaya

Nagaland

Myrtaceae Eugenia argenta Bedd.

Eugenia singampattiana Bedd

Syzygium bourdillonii (Gamble)Athakr. et N.C Nayar

S. palghatense gamble

Wynad forest, Kerala

Tirunelveli dist Tamil Nadu

South India

Palghat hills, Kerala

Orchchidaceae Anoectochilus rotundafolius (Blatt.)Balak.

Aphyllorchilus gollani Duthie

Calanthe whiteana King & Pantl.

Coelogyne treutleri Hook. f.

Paphiopedilum wardii Summerh

Pleione lagenaria Lindl

Vanda wightii Reichb.f

Zeuxine pulchra king et Pantl.

Madura District., Tamil Nadu

Tehri Garhwal, U.P.

Sikkim

Sikkim

Arunachal Pradesh

Meghalaya

Nilgiri Hillss, Tamil Nadu

Meghalaya

Palmae Corypha taliera Roxb. India
Poaceae Deyeuxia simlensis Bor

Eragrostis rottleri Stapf

Eragrostis mauiensis Hitche

Eriochrysis rangacharii Fischer

Hubbardia heptaneuron Bor

Simla, Himachal Pradesh

E.Coast of Tranquebar ,S.India

Tamil Nadu

Paikara in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu

Gorsoppa falls of the Sharavati river Karnataka

Rubiaceae

Hedyotis hirsutissima Bedd.

Opercularia ocolytantha Diels

Ophiorrhiza barnesii Fischer

O.brunonis Wight et Arn

O.caudata Fischer

O.pykarensis Gamble

O.radicans Gardu

Pavetta oblanceolata Berm

P.wightii Hook.f.

Psychotria tylophora Kurz

Wendlandia angustifolia Wight ex Hook.f.

Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu

Karnataka ,Kerala

Trivancore ,kerala

Hills of Kerala,Tamil Nadu Karnataka

Kerala

Nilgiri Hills

Kerala ,Sri Lanka

Kerala

 Nilgiri Hills , Coonoor ,Tamil Nadu

Nicobar island

Tamil Nadu

Sapotaceae Madhuca bourdillonii (Gamble) H.J. Lam

Madhuca insignis (Radlk) H.J. Lam

Quilon dist, Kerala

Mangalore , Karnataka

Sterculiaceae Sterculia khasiana Debbarman Khasi Hills , Meghalaya
Zingiberaceae Hedychium marginatum C.B. Clarke Nagaland
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    2.  What are the plants indicator for Pollution ?

Plant are more sensitive to pollution than human and can serve as indicators and resistant species as accumulators which collect large amount of pollutants without being damaged.

Many chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides and fossil fuels release toxic substances into the environment which are absorbed by the plants from air , water and soil. Atmospheric pollutants produced from automobiles, industrial fumes and strong radiations are dangerous to plants. Harmful substances that reach plants through air are CO2 , SO2, NO2, Hydrocarbons , dust and smoke. Plants growing in water are severely affected by toxic chemicals like cynide , chlorine , hypochlorate , phenol , benzyl derivatives and heavy metal compounds present in sewage .

 The effects of different kinds of pollution can be determined by the nature of pollutants , their and the period of exposure. Under exposure to high concentration, plants suffer acute injuries with externally visible symptoms such as chlorosis , discolouration , necrosis and death of entire plant. Besides morphological changes ,Chemical , biochemical , such as enzymatic parameter, physiological and fine structural changes also occur in the affected plants.

        Mosses, lichens and some fungi are more sensitive to SO2 for long time.

 Mercury concentration in Festuca rubera grass may be due to chloroalkali setup and lead (Pb) in leaves is increased due to automobile exhaust.

     Polygonum, Rheum, Vicia, Phaseolus and Capsella are important pollution indicators.

 

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    3.   What are the plants indicators for Mineral ?

The plants which indicate the presence of characteristics minerals in the soil are called metallophytes, for example - Vallozia candida grows in the presence of diamond in soil. Equisetum arvensis, Lonicera confusa, Papaver libonticum, Thuja species indicate the presence of gold mineral in the soil. Eriogonum ovafolium indicates the presence of silver mineral in soil. Stellaria setacea grows in mercury rich soil. Astragalus spp. indicate presence of uranium. Viscaria alpina indicates copper minerals. Viola calaminaria, V.lutea are indicators for zinc presence. Salsola nitrata, Euro ceatoides grow in boron rich soil.Dammara ovata, Dacrydium are indicators for iron mineral. Ilex aquifolium grows in aluminium rich soil.

 
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     4.  Is there any plant indicator for Ground water

Certain plant communities indicate the depth of ground water e.g., Euphorbia caducifolia . Capparis decidua , Acacia senegal, Anogeissus pendula, Salvadora persica, Panicum turgidum, Tamarix and Ziziphus spp.

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   5.  What are the plants indicator for Humus ?

Some plats act ac humus indicator. Monotropa ,Neottia and mashrooms indicate thee prence of humas in soil. Strodilanthes and Impatiens indicate the presence of high humus or litter.

 
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   6.  What are the plants indicator for Soil type?

Many plants indicate the characteristics of soil. For exmaple, Casuarina equisetifolia , Citrullus colocynthis and Tanicum spp. grow in sandy soil. Imperata cylindrica and Vetivria grow on clayey soil. Cotton prefers to grow in black soil. 

 

    7.   Number of plant species belonging to major group expected to occur in India / World ?

Group                                   No. of Species Described  so far

No. species Guness Estimates only

                                             India   World India World
Bacteria 850 8050 85000 400000
Fungi 14500 70000 328570 1000000
Algea 6500 40000 12500 200000
Seed Plants 17500 250000 20247 300000
 
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     8.  Number of wild species in different Crop Group ?

Crop groups

Number of wild species

1. Cereals and Millets 51
2. Legumes 31
3. Fruits 109
4. Vegetables 54
5. Oil seed 12
6. Fibre plants 24
7. Species and condiments 27
8. Medicinal plants 3000
9. Others 26
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   9.  What are the eight centres of origin of Cultivated Plants ?

1.   Chinese-Japanese Region

2.   Hindusthan Region

2a.  Indo-Malayan Region

3.   Central Asian Region

4.   Near Eastern Region

5.   Mediterranean Region

6.  Abyssinian Region

7.   South Mexican and Central American Region

8.   South American Region (Peru,Ecuador,Bolivia)

8a.  Chile

8bBrazil and Paraguay

 

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   10.  What are the twelve mega center of Cultivate Plants?

 

  1. Chinese - Japanese Region

  2. Indochinese - Indonesian Region

  3. Australian Region

  4. Hindusthani Region

  5. Central Asian Region

  6. Near Eastern Region

  7. Mediterranean Region

  8. African Region

  9. European - Siberian Region

  10. South American Region

  11. Central Amerian and Mexican Region

  12. North American Region.

 

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   11. What are the mega diversity countries of the world and what is the estimated supply of Flowering Plants ?

 

Sl.No Country

Number of Flowering Plant Species

1 Brazil 55,000
2 Columbia 35,000
3 China 30,000
4 Mexico 25,000
5 South Africa 23,000
6 Soviet Union (Former) 22,000
7 Indonesia 20,000
8 Venezuela 20,000
9 United States of America 18,000
10 Ecuador 18,000
11 India 17,500
12 Australia 15,000

 

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12.  What are the number of species of major group of plants and micro organism described and estimated ?

  

Plant Groups

No. of species described

% of India to the World Estimated number
 

India

World

  World
Virus

Bacteria

850

 

8,050

 

10.6

 

9,00,000

 

Algae 6,500 40,000 16.3 3,50,000
Fungi 14,500 72,000 20.1 10,00,000
Lichens 2,021 13,500 15.0 20,000
Liverworts 845 7,500 11.3 9,000
Mosses 1,980 7,000 28.3 9,000
Pteridophytes 1,200 10,000 12.0 12,000
Gymnosperms 48 650 7.4 650
Angiosperms 17,500 2,50,000 7.0 3,00,000

 

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   13.  Dominant plant families and there proportion to the global diversity ?

Family

Number of Genera

% of India to The World

Number of species

% of India to The world

India

World

India

World

Poaceae 260 500 52.0 1200 8000 15.0
Fabacea 191 590 32.4 1152 14200 8.1
Orchidaceae 166 800-1000 20.7 - 16.6 1141 25 -35000 4.6 - 3.3
Asteraceae 167 1100 15.2 950 20000 4.75
Rubiaceae 115 450 25.6 659 6500 10.14
Cyperaceae 38 70 54.3 545 4000 13.6
Euphorbiaceae 84 300 28.0 528 7500 7.0
Acanthaceae 92 250 36.8 510 2500 20.4
Roseceae 40 100 40.0 492 3000 16.4
Lamiaceae 72 200 36.0 454 3200 14.2

 

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   14.  Indian hotspot and number of endemic species of higher plants?

Sl.No.

Hot Spot Region

No. of  Endemic Species of Higher plants

1   Cape Region (South Africa) 6000
2   Upland Western Amazonia 5000
3   Atlantic Coastal Brazil 5000
4   Madagascar 4900
5   Philippines 3700
6   North Borneo 3500
7   Eastern Himalaya (India) 3500
8   South West Australia 2830
9   Western Ecuador 2500
10   Colombian Choco 2500
11   Peninsular Malaysia 2400
12 Californian Floristic Province 2140
13 Western Ghats (India) 1600
14 Central Chile 1450
15 New Caledonia 1400
16 Eastern Arc Mountains (Tanzania) 535
17 South -West Sri Lanka 500
18 South - West Cote d'lvoire 200

 

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   15.    What is the estimated endemic species from different group of plants in India ?

Sl.No.

Group of Plants

Total No. of species in India (±)

No. of endemic species (±)

Percentage (±)

1  Marine algea 624 63 1
2  Fungi 14500 3500 24
3  Lichen 2000 466 23
4  Liverwort 850 260 30
5  Moss 2000 678 34
6  Pteridophyte 1200 193 16
7  Gymnosperm 48 7 2
8  Angiosperm 17500 6200 36

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